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Fringillidae
雀科
què kē

燕雀科
yàn-què kē

アトリ科
atori ka

되새과
doe-sae-gwa

Họ Sẻ thồng

(Following Nguyen, Le, and Phillips, we distinguish the Fringillidae from the Emberizidae as Họ Sẻ thồng)
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General

Information is from dictionaries and other sources. Comments and corrections welcome. Hover over Green Lettering Green lettering at this site hides a tool tip with glosses, further explanations, etc. Hover cursor to reveal. to see additional information.

The form què was traditionally identified in Chinese with the sparrows (now usually 麻雀 má-què) or small birds in general. In a more specialised sense, it came to be identified with the finches. In this family we will consistently gloss què as 'finch'.

Traditional names

Traditionally a number of more distinctive birds have individual names.

1. The crossbills are known transparently as 交嘴鳥 jiāo-zuǐ-niǎo 'cross-billed bird' or 交喙鳥 jiāo-huì-niǎo 'cross-billed bird'.

2. The naming of the hawfinches/grosbeaks is an area of curious confusion. Ornithologically the Mainland uses 錫嘴 xī-zuǐ 'tin bill' for the Hawfinch (Coccothraustes) and 蠟嘴 là-zuǐ 'wax bill' for the grosbeaks (Eophona). In Taiwan, on the other hand, the Hawfinch is given the ornithological name 臘嘴雀 là-zuǐ-què 'cured-meat-billed finch'. (The character has a number of meanings, including the end of the lunar year and associated sacrifices, and cured meat or sausage meat).

The names are, in fact, related, which can be seen from: a) The character , a traditional simplification of , may be read either or (standardised to in Mainland China), and b) The Japanese name of the Hawfinch is written 蠟嘴 'waxbill', simplified to 蝋嘴 in modern Japanese. The exact relationship among these names and the characters used to write them needs further clarification.

3. The Brambling is known by the traditional name 花雀 huā-què 'flower-sparrow'. There are a number of other names (see tables), including the old North Chinese name 燕雀 yàn-què 'swallow-finch'.

4. Pallas's Rosefinch is traditionally known as 靠山紅 kào shān hóng 'near mountain red'.

5. The goldfinches are traditionally known as 金翅 jīn-chì 'gold-wing'.

Ornithological names

Most of the fringillids have Taiwanese ornithological names that end in què, often affixed to old names.

1. 花雀 huā-què 'flower-sparrow' is used for Fringilla.

2. 金翅雀 jīn-chì-què 'gold-winged finch' is used for greenfinches and goldfinches (Chloris), based on the old name 金翅 jīn-chì 'gold-wing'.

3. The siskins (Spinus) are known as 黄雀 huáng-què 'yellow-finch'. The is the same as that suggested in Chinese Birds (35) of 1927. 黄雀 huáng-què 'yellow-sparrow' is traditionally used for the sparrow.

4. 朱頂雀 zhū-dǐng-què 'vermilion-capped finch' is used for the Redpoll (Acanthis).

5. Species known as 'rosefinches' in English (Carpodacus, Erythrina) are called 朱雀 zhū-què 'vermilion-finch'. The earliest ornithological name, in Chinese Birds (35) of 1927, was 粉紅雀 fěn-hóng-què 'pink-finch', a direct calque on the English. This was later shortened to 朱雀 zhū-què 'vermilion-finch', probably inspired by the Vermilion Bird or 朱雀 zhū-què, a mythical bird which is conventionally depicted as a red phoenix-like bird, somewhat resembling a pheasant with five-coloured plumage. The Vermilion Bird is traditionally identified with the direction south. (The other directions are represented by the Azure Dragon (青龍 qīng-lóng) in the east, the White Tiger (白虎 bái-hǔ) in the west, and the Black Turtle (玄武 xuán-wǔ) in the north.)

6. The Bullfinches (Pyrrhula) are known as xué 'bullfinch'. The name is from Japanese, where it is read uso. This was the early suggested name in Chinese Birds (35) of 1927. In Chinese, the character originally appears to have been used for a bird resembling the Japanese Paradise Flycatcher (Terpsiphone atrocaudata) or Dollarbird (Eurystomas orientalis), and was only later used for the Bullfinch by the Japanese. Mainland lists use 灰雀 huī-què 'grey sparrow' for the bullfinches.

7. The Hawfinch (Coccothraustes) is known as 臘嘴雀 là-zuǐ-què 'cured-meat-billed finch', which adds to the traditional name. The Mainland name is 錫嘴雀 xī-zuǐ-què 'tin-billed finch'.

8. The grosbeaks (Eophona) are known as 桑鳲 sāng-shī 'mulberry grosbeak'. This is adopted from the Japanese writing of the name イカル ikaru 'grosbeak'. 桑鳲 sāng-shī is likely an old Chinese name ( sāng means 'mulberry', shī is a kind of cuckoo) borrowed to write the Japanese name. Mainland lists use 蠟嘴雀 là-zuǐ-què 'wax-billed finch'.

Family name

The traditional Chinese name for the Fringillidae is 雀科 què kē, which equates què to 'finch'. Recently, however, Mainland naming has adopted the family name 燕雀科 yàn-què kē, after the name of the Brambling.

Species names

› ABOUT THIS TABLE‹
FRINGILLINAE
SCIENTIFIC & ENGLISH
CHINESE
JAPANESE
OTHER
Fringilla
Latin
English
Chinese (Taiwan)
Chinese (Mainland)
Other Ch
Japanese
Other J
Korean
Vietnamese
Fringilla montifringilla
link to photolink to photo
Brambling (花雀)
花雀
huā-què
'flowery finch'
燕雀
(燕雀)
yàn-què
'swallow-finch'
(花鸡)
花雞
huā-jī
'flowery fowl/chicken'(35 from Zool. Nomen.)
(燕雀)
燕雀
yàn-qiǎo
'swallow-finch' (northern) (35)
(燕雀儿)
燕雀兒
yàn-qiǎor
'swallow-finch'
(花鹊)
花鵲
huā-què
'flowery magpie' (touthern) (35)
(虎皮雀)
虎皮雀
hǔ-pí què
'tiger-skin finch'
アトリ
(花鶏 ~ 猲子鳥)
atori
'brambling'
  되새
doe-sae
'chaffinch bird'
Chim Sẻ đồng đầu đen
'black-headed field-sparrow (bird)' (12)
 
CARDUELINAE
SCIENTIFIC & ENGLISH
CHINESE
JAPANESE
OTHER
COCCOTHRAUSTINI
Coccothraustes
Latin
English
Chinese (Taiwan)
Chinese (Mainland)
Other Ch
Japanese
Other J
Korean
Vietnamese
Coccothraustes coccothraustes
link to photolink to photo
Hawfinch (腊嘴雀)
臘嘴雀
là-zuǐ-què
'cured-meat-billed finch'
锡嘴雀
(錫嘴雀)
xī-zuǐ-què
'tin-billed finch'
(锡嘴)
錫嘴
xī-zuǐ
'tin bill' (35)
(老锡儿)
老錫兒
lǎo xīr
'old tin'
(老西子)
老西子
lǎo xīzi
'old west'
(老西儿)
老西兒
lǎo xīr
'old west' (northern) (35)
(老醯儿)
老醯兒
lǎo xīr
'old pickle-vinegar'
(厚嘴鸟)
厚嘴鳥
hòu-zuǐ niǎo
'thick-billed bird'
(铁嘴蜡子)
鐵嘴蠟子
tiě-zuǐ làzi
iron-billed wax'
(日本锡嘴)
日本錫子
rìběn xī-zuǐ
'Japanese tin-bill' (early ornithological) (35)
(腊嘴雀)
臘嘴雀
là-zuǐ-què
'cured-meat-billed finch' (35, from Zool. Nomen.)
シメ
( ~ 蝋嘴)
shime
'hawfinch'
ヒメ
( ~ )
hime
'hawfinch' (variant form)
콩새
kong-sae
'bean ? bird'
 
Eophona
Latin
English
Chinese (Taiwan)
Chinese (Mainland)
Other Ch
Japanese
Other J
Korean
Vietnamese
Eophona migratoria
Coccothraustes migratorius
link to photolink to photo
Yellow-billed Grosbeak
or
Chinese Grosbeak
Black-tailed Hawfinch
(小桑鸤)
小桑鳲
xiǎo sāng-shī
'small mulberry grosbeak'
黑尾蜡嘴雀
(黑尾蠟嘴雀)
hēi-wěi là-zuǐ-què
'black-tailed wax-billed finch'
(黑头大嘴鸟)
黑頭大嘴鳥
hēi-tóu dà-zuǐ niǎo
'black-headed large-billed bird' (early ornithological) (35)
(蜡嘴)
蠟嘴
là-zuǐ
'wax bill' (general) (35)
(皂儿)
皂兒
zàor
'black' (northern) (35)
(少花子)
少花子
shào huāzi
'young flower'
(小桑鸤)
小桑鳲
xiǎo sāng-shī
'small mulberry grosbeak' (35, from Zool. Nomen.)
コイカル
(小桑鳲 ~ 小鵤 ~ 小斑鳩)
ko-ikaru
'small grosbeak'
  밀화부리
milhwa-buri
'waxen-bill'
Coccothraustes migratorius (12):
Chim Mỏ to đầu đen
'black-headed large-bill (bird)' (12, 13, 34)
Eophona personata
Coccothraustes personatus
link to photolink to photo
Japanese grosbeak
Masked hawfinch
(桑鸤)
桑鳲
sāng-shī
'mulberry grosbeak'
黑头蜡嘴雀
(黑頭蠟嘴雀)
hēi-tóu là-zuǐ-què
'black-headed wax-billed finch'
(蜡嘴)
蠟嘴
là-zuǐ
'wax bill' (35, from Materia Medica)
(梧桐)
梧桐
wú-tóng
'Chinese parasol tree' (northern) (35)
(桑鸤)
桑鳲
sāng-shī
'mulberry grosbeak' (35, from Zool. Nomen.)
イカル
(桑鳲 ~ ~ 斑鳩)
ikaru
'grosbeak'
サンコウチョウ
(三光鳥)
sankōchō
'three light bird' (also name of Terpsiphone atrocaudata)
マメマワシ
(豆回し)
mamemawashi
'bean turner' (from habit of turning beans in bill as it eats)
イカルガ
(斑鳩)
ikaruga
'ikaruga' (written 'striped pigeon')
큰부리밀화부리
keun-buri-milhwa-buri
large-billed waxen-bill'
 
CARPODACINI
Erythrina
Latin
English
Chinese (Taiwan)
Chinese (Mainland)
Other Ch
Japanese
Other J
Korean
Vietnamese
Erythrina erythrina
Carpodacus erythrinus
link to photo
Common rosefinch (普通朱雀)
普通朱雀
pǔtōng zhū-què
'common vermilion-finch'
普通朱雀
(普通朱雀)
pǔtōng zhū-què
'common vermilion-finch'
(朱雀)
朱雀
zhū-què
'vermilion-finch' (6, 7)
(青麻料儿 / 青麻料)
青麻料兒 / 青麻料
qīng má-liàor / qīng má-liào
'green/blue hemp material' (literal)
(青雀)
青雀
qīng-què
'green/blue sparrow'
(红雀)
紅雀
hóng-què
'red finch' (also Schoeniclus rutilus, Amandava amandava, and Passer rutilus)
(赤䳦)
赤䳦
chì-xuān
'red-xuan' (35, from Zool. Nomen.)
(赫氏红雀)
赫氏紅雀
hè-shì hóng-què
'Mr He's red finch' (early ornithological) (35)
アカマシコ
(赤猿子)
aka mashiko
'red rosefinch'
  적원자
jeogwonja
'jeogwonja'
Chim Sẻ hồng mura
'mura rosy sparrow (bird)' (12)
Carpodacus
Latin
English
Chinese (Taiwan)
Chinese (Mainland)
Other Ch
Japanese
Other J
Korean
Vietnamese
Carpodacus roseus
link to photolink to photo
Pallas's rosefinch
Siberian rosefinch
(北朱雀)
北朱雀
běi zhū-què
'northern vermilion-finch'
北朱雀
(北朱雀)
běi zhū-què
'northern vermilion-finch'
(靠山红)
靠山紅
kào shān hóng
'near mountain red' (northern) (35)
(䳦鶡)
䳦鶡
xuān-hé
'xuan-crossbill' (35, from Zool. Nomen.)
(西比利亚粉红雀)
西比利亞粉紅雀
xībǐlìyà fěn-hóng-què
'Siberian pink-finch' (early ornithological) (35)
オオマシコ
(大猿子)
ō mashiko
'large rosefinch'
  양진이
yangjini
'rosefinch'
 
Carpodacus formosanus Taiwan Rosefinch (台湾朱雀)
台灣朱雀
tái-wān zhū-què
'Taiwan vermilion-finch'
-   -      
Carpodacus vinaceus
link to photo
Vinaceous rosefinch (酒红朱雀)
酒紅朱雀
jiǔ-hóng zhū-què
'wine-red vermilion-finch'
酒红朱雀
(酒紅朱雀)
jiǔ-hóng zhū-què
'wine-red vermilion-finch'
(葡萄红粉红雀)
葡萄紅粉紅雀
pútáo hóng fěn-hóng-què
'grape-red pink-finch' (early ornithological) (35)
タカサゴマシコ
(高砂猿子)
takasago mashiko
'Taiwan rosefinch'
     
PYRRHULINI
Pyrrhula
Latin
English
Chinese (Taiwan)
Chinese (Mainland)
Other Ch
Japanese
Other J
Korean
Vietnamese
Pyrrhula nipalensis
link to photo
Brown bullfinch (褐鸴)
褐鷽
hè xué
'brown bullfinch'
褐灰雀
(褐灰雀)
hè huī-què
'brown grey-finch'
()

xué
'bullfinch'
(拙老婆)
拙老婆
zhuō lǎopó
'stupid wife'
(暗色鸴)
暗色鷽
àn-sè xué
'dark-coloured bullfinch' (early ornithological) (35)
チャイロウソ
(茶色鷽)
cha-iro uso
'brown bullfinch'
    Chim Sẻ mỏ ngắn
'short-billed sparrow (bird)' (12, 34)
Pyrrhula erythaca
link to photo
Grey-headed bullfinch
Beavan's bullfinch
(灰鸴)
灰鷽
huī xué
'grey bullfinch'
灰头灰雀
(灰頭灰雀)
huī-tóu huī-què
'grey-headed grey-finch'
(赤胸灰雀)
赤胸灰雀
chì-xiōng huī-què
'red-breasted grey-finch' (6)
(血红胸鸴)
血紅胸鷽
xiě-hóng-xiōng xué
'blood-red-breasted bullfinch' (early ornithological) (35)
(毕蕃氏鸴)
畢蕃氏鷽
bìfān-shì xué
'Mr Bifan's bullfinch' (early ornithological) (35)
(拙老婆)
拙老婆
zhuō lǎopó
'stupid wife'
タカサゴウソ
(高砂鷽)
takasago uso
'Taiwanese bullfinch'
     
Pyrrhula pyrrhula
link to photolink to photo
Eurasian bullfinch
Northern bullfinch
Common bullfinch
Bullfinch
Cassin's bullfinch
(欧亚鸴)
歐亞鷽
ōu-yà xué
'Eurasian bullfinch'
红腹灰雀
(紅腹灰雀)
hóng-fù huī-què
'red-bellied grey-finch'
›Taxonomy‹
Pyrrhula cassini:
()

xué
'bullfinch'
(拙老婆)
拙老婆
zhuō lǎopó
'stupid wife' (35, from Zool. Nomen.)
(牛哞)
牛哞
niú-mōu
'cow/bull moo'
(灰儿)
灰兒
huīr
'grey'
(东方鸴)
東方鷽
dōng-fāng xué
'eastern bullfinch' (early ornithological) (35)
ウソ
()
uso
'bullfinch'
  멋쟁이
meo-t-jaengi
'mountain jaengi
 
CARDUELINI
Chloris
Latin
English
Chinese (Taiwan)
Chinese (Mainland)
Other Ch
Japanese
Other J
Korean
Vietnamese
Chloris sinica
Carduelis sinica
link to photolink to photo
Grey-capped Greenfinch
Oriental Greenfinch
Greenfinch
Chinese greenfinch
(金翅雀)
金翅雀
jīn-chì-què
'gold-winged finch'
金翅雀
(金翅雀)
jīn-chì-què
'gold-winged finch' (1, 2, 3, 4)
or
金翅
(金翅)
jīn-chì
'gold-wing' (alt in 1, 3, 5)
›Note‹
东方金翅
(東方金翅)
dōngfāng jīn-chì
'eastern gold-wing' (5)
(金翅儿)
金翅兒
jīn-chèr
'gold-wing' (northern) (35)
(芦花黄雀)
蘆花黃雀
lú-huā huáng-què
'reed catkin yellow-finch' (southern) (35) (also C. spinus)
(黄楠雀)
黄楠雀
huáng nán què
'yellow Phoebe zhennan finch'
(黄翎子)
黄翎子
huáng língzi
'yellow feather'
(东方金翅鸟)
東方金翅鳥
dōng-fāng jīn-chì-niǎo
'oriental gold-winged bird'
(绿雀)
綠雀
lǜ què
'green finch'
(中国绿雀)
中國綠雀
zhōng-guó lǜ què
'Chinese green finch' (early ornithological) (35)
カワラヒワ
(河原鶸)
kawara hiwa
'river-bed siskin'
  방울새
bangul-sae
'finch bird'
Chim Sẻ thông Trung Quốc
'Chinese pine-sparrow (bird)' (34)
Chim Sẻ thông đầu xám
'grey-headed pine-sparrow (bird)' (13)
Acanthis
Latin
English
Chinese (Taiwan)
Chinese (Mainland)
Other Ch
Japanese
Other J
Korean
Vietnamese
Acanthis flammea
Carduelis flammea
link to photo
Common redpoll
Redpoll
(普通朱顶雀)
普通朱頂雀
pǔtōng zhū-dǐng-què
'common vermilion-capped finch'
白腰朱顶雀
(白腰朱頂雀)
bái-yāo zhū-dǐng-què
'white-rumped vermilion-capped finch'
(朱顶雀)
朱頂雀
zhū-dǐng-què
'vermilion-capped finch'
(贮点)
貯點
zhù diǎn
'(literally) save-a-bit' (northern) (35)
(贮点红)
貯點紅
zhù diǎn hóng
'(literally) save-a-bit red' (northern) (35)
(红鶸)
紅鶸
hóng ruò
'red siskin' (35, from Zool. Nomen.) (from Japanese)
ベニヒワ
(紅鶸)
beni hiwa
'crimson siskin'
  홍방울새
hong-bangul-sae
'red finch bird'
 
Spinus
Latin
English
Chinese (Taiwan)
Chinese (Mainland)
Other Ch
Japanese
Other J
Korean
Vietnamese
Spinus spinus
Carduelis spinus
link to photolink to photo
Eurasian siskin
Spruce siskin
Siskin
(黄雀)
黄雀
huáng-què
'yellow-finch'
黄雀
(黃雀)
huáng-què
'yellow-finch'
(黄鸟)
黃鳥
huáng-niǎo
'yellow bird' (also used for Oriolus chinensis)
(黄雀)
黃雀
huáng-què
'yellow finch' (northern) (35)
(芦花黄雀)
蘆花黃雀
lú-huā huáng-què
'reed catkin yellow-finch' (southern) (35)(also C. sinica)
(普通黄雀)
普通黃雀
pǔtōng huáng-què
'common yellow finch' (early ornithological) (35)
マヒワ
(真鶸)
ma-hiwa
'true siskin'
  검은머리방울새
geomeun-meori-bangul-sae
'black-headed finch bird'
Chim Sẻ thông vàng
'yellow pine-sparrow (bird)' (34)
Chim Sẻ thông Siskim
'siskin pine-sparrow (bird)' (13)

is read xuān and appears to mean 'wren' or 'tailorbird'.

is read and means 'crossbill' or 'a species of nightingale'. In Japanese it is used to write イスカ isuka 'crossbill', and is borrowed into Chinese as such in early ornithological sources.

Pyrrhula griseiventris (Oriental Bullfinch) is found in Chinese sources (1, 2, 5, 6), but in Howard and Moore is recognised only as a subspecies of Pyrrhula pyrrhula. Its Chinese name is 灰腹灰雀 huī-tóu huī-què 'grey-bellied grey-finch'.

The name Sẻ đồng 'field sparrow' is shared with the Emberizidae. In order to draw a clear distinction between the two families, Nguyen, Le & Phillipps attempt to assign the name Chim sẻ thông 'pine-sparrow (bird)' to those members of the Fringillidae that bear the name Sẻ 'sparrow', with the glaring exception of Carduelis ambigua, which due to a naming conflict with the Brambling Fringilla montifringilla takes on the name Sẻ đồng 'field sparrow' (i.e., bunting).

The name アトリ atori has traditionally been written: 1. as 花鶏 literally 'flower chicken/fowl', an old Chinese name for the Brambling; 2. using the character combination 猲子鳥, also presumably of Chinese origin.

The name イスカ isuka has traditionally been written: 1. with the Chinese name of the crossbill, 交喙 meaning 'crossed bill'; 2. using the Japanese created character .

The name ヒメ hime is a pronunciation variant of シメ shime (the sounds shi and hi are similar in pronunciation, resulting in confusion in certain varieties of Japanese). As a bird name, ヒメ hime has traditionally been written either 1. with the Japanese-created (or adapted) character for シメ shime, , or 2. another specially created character, .

The name シメ shime has traditionally been written: 1. with the Japanese-created (or adapted) character , 2. the Chinese name of the bird, written 蝋嘴 'wax bill'.

A variety of Chinese characters or character combinations have traditionally been used to write the word イカル ikaru: 1. the characters 桑鳲, identified as the Chinese name for the grosbeaks; 2. the Japanese-created character ; 3. the Chinese characters 斑鳩 meaning 'striped pigeon'.

中国鸟类种和亚种分类名录大全(修订版) 郑作新 著 科学出版社 北京 2000年
A Complete Checklist of Species and Subspecies of the Chinese Birds (Revised Edition) by Cheng Tso-Hsin, Science Press, Beijing 2000

中国鸟类分类与分布名录 主编:郑光美 科学出版社 北京 2005年
A Checklist on the Classification and Distribution of the Birds of China Chief editor: Zheng Guangmei, Science Press, Beijing 2005

中国鸟类野外手册(中文版)约翰・马敬能、卡伦・菲利普斯,合作者:荷芬奇,翻译:卢和芬 湖南教育出版社 长沙 2000年
A Field Guide to the Birds of China (Chinese translation) by John MacKinnon, Karen Phillipps, in collaboration with He Fen-qi, translated by Lu Hefen, Hunan Jiaoyu Chubanshe (Hunan Educational Press) Changsha 2000

世界鸟类分类与分布名录 主编:郑光美 科学出版社 北京 2002年
A Checklist on the Classification and Distribution of the Birds of the World Chief editor: Zheng Guangmei, Science Press, Beijing 2002

世界鸟类名称(拉丁文、汉文、英文对照)第二版 郑作新等 科学出版社 北京 2002年
Birds of the World (Latin, Chinese and English Names) 2nd ed. by Cheng Tso-Hsin et al, Science Press, Beijing 2002

中国鸟类分布名录 第二版 郑作新 科学出版社 北京 1976年
(Checklist of the Classification of Birds of China 2nd edition by Cheng Tso-Hsin, Science Press, Beijing 1976)

香港及華南鳥類(第六版)(翻譯成中文及重新修訂) 尹璉、費嘉倫、林超英 香港性徵特區政府新聞處政府印務局 1994年
Birds of Hong Kong and South China (6th edition, translated into Chinese and newly revised) by Clive Viney, Karen Phillipps, Lin Chaoying, Hong Kong Govt. Press 1994

Danh Lục Chim Việt Nam (In lần thứ hai) (Checklist of the Birds of Vietnam) Võ Quý, Nguyễn Cử, Nhà Xuất Bản Nông Nghiệp, Hà Nội 1999

Chim Việt Nam Nguyễn Cử, Lê Trọng Trải, Karen Phillipps; Nhà Xuất Bản Lao Động - Xã Hội, 2000

Danh Lục Các Loài Chim ở Việt Nam (Latinh, Việt, Pháp, Hán) Trần Văn Chánh 2008-2009

Chinese Birds (A Tentative List of Chinese Birds) 中國鳥類(中國鳥類目錄試編) N. Gist Gee, Lacy I. Moffett, G. D. Wilder (祁天錫, 慕維德, 萬卓志), Peiping, 1927 (reprinted 1948)