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Columbidae
Họ Bồ câu

鸠鸽科
jiū-gē kē

鳩鴿科
jiū-gē kē

ハト科
hato ka

วงศ์นกพิราบและนกเขา
woŋ nók pʰí-râap láe nók kʰăw

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General

The following is based on analysis of dictionaries and other sources. Comments and corrections welcome. Malaysian names are now being updated. For consistency, Vietnamese bird names (except for ducks and chickens) are preceded by the word Chim meaning 'bird'. Ornithological lists mostly omit this as understood. Hover over Green Lettering Green lettering at this site hides a tool tip with glosses, further explanations, etc. Hover cursor to reveal. to see additional information.

Apart from the domesticated pigeon (Rock Dove), a variety of wild pigeons and doves is found in Vietnam and the language is relatively rich in names for them.

Chim bồ câu, Chim bồ cu, or Chim câu is the normal term for the domesticated pigeon or Rock Dove, and by extension is now the general word for 'pigeon'. In the lists below the name and its variants are glossed as 'pigeon₁'. Despite a similarity to Chinese 鵓鴿 bógē 'pigeon' and 鵓鴣 bógū 'wood-pigeon', it's not clear whether bồ câu is etymologically related to either of these. 鵓鴿 would normally be read in Vietnamese as bột cáp (Cantonese but6 gɐp2), 鵓鴣 as bột cô (Cantonese but6 gu1), but routes of borrowing other than character readings should not be ruled out.

Chim gầm ghì, Chim gầm ghị, or Chim cu gầm ghì is another, probably older, Vietnamese word for the pigeons. It is now used mainly for the Cuckoo Doves and Imperial Pigeons, and also officially for the domesticated pigeon. This name is glossed 'pigeon₂' in the lists below.

Chim cu, which is likely onomatopoeic, is a term officially used for Turtle Doves and Emerald Doves. (In some Central dialects this is reduplicated as Chim cu cu, which in standard usage refers to cuckoos.) Cu may be used in combination with other names (see below). In the lists it is glossed as 'dove'.

Chim chàng vịt is given in some dictionaries as a term for 'pigeon' or 'dove'.

Turtle Doves have a number of individual names:

The Oriental Turtle Dove (Streptopelia orientalis) is known as the Chim sen 'lotus-bird' (from its soft pinkish colour), Chim cu sen 'lotus dove bird', Chim cu đất 'ground dove bird' , or Chim cu cu đất 'ground dove bird' (dialect).

The Spotted-necked Dove (Streptopelia chinensis) is known as the Chim gáy 'calling bird', Chim cu gáy 'calling dove bird', Chim cu gấm 'spotted dove bird', or Chim cu cườm 'beaded dove bird'.

The Red Turtle Dove (Streptopelia tranquebarica) is known as the Chim ngói 'tile bird' (from the terracotta colour of tiles), Chim cu ngói 'tile dove bird', or Chim cu lửa 'fire dove bird' (dialect). Chim bồ câu lửa 'fire pigeon bird' is possibly also applied to this species.

The carrier pigeon is known in Vietnamese as: Bồ câu đưa thư 'deliver message pigeon'.

Ornithological naming

Naturalists assign names to columbid genera as follows:

Vietnamese name Genera
Bồ câu Pale-capped Pigeon (Columba punicea)
Nicobar Pigeon (Caloenas)
Gầm ghì Rock Dove (Columba livia)
Cuckoo Doves (Macropygia)
Imperial Pigeons (Ducula)
Cu Turtle Doves (Streptopelia)
Emerald Dove (Chalcophaps)
Cu xanh
'blue/green cu'
Green Pigeons (Treron)

Despite the familiar use of Chim bồ câu to refer to the domesticated pigeon (or Rock Dove), and the fact that Bồ câu thus gives its name to the family, Columba livia (Rock Dove) itself is given the name Gầm ghì in ornithological lists (although not in the more recent (34)).

Chữ Nôm

Characters used for columbids in the now obsolete Chữ Nôm characters include:

Name Chữ Nôm
Images from the Vietnamese Nôm Preservation Foundation dictionary. (Errors are the sole responsibility of the author of this site)
Bồ câu chu nom for bochu nom for cau; chu nom for bochu nom for cau; chu nom for bochu nom for cau and other combinations of these characters

Species names

› ABOUT THIS TABLE‹
COLUMBINAE
SCIENTIFIC & WESTERN
VIETNAMESE
EAST ASIAN
S. E. ASIAN
Columba
Latin
English/French
Vietnamese
Other V
Chinese
Japanese
Thai
Malaysian
Indonesian
Columba livia
link to photo
Rock Dove
or
Rock Pigeon
Common Pigeon
Feral Rock Pigeon
Feral pigeon

Pigeon biset
Chim Gầm ghì đá
'rock pigeon₂ (bird)' (12, 13)
(introduced)
Chim Bồ câu đá
'rock pigeon₁ (bird)' (34)
Chim Bồ câu
'pigeon₁ (bird)'
Chim Câu
'pigeon₁ (bird)'
原鸽
(原鴿)
yuán gē
'primitive/original pigeon'
Taiwan:
(野鸽)
野鴿
yě gē
'wild pigeon'
(introduced)
カワラバト
(河原鳩)
kawara-bato
'dry riverbed pigeon' (introduced)
นกพิราบป่า
nók pʰí-râap pàa
'forest (=wild) rockdove (bird)' (introduced)
Burung Pergam Batu
'rock pigeon (bird)' (24, 25)
Burung Merpati
'pigeon (bird)' (26) (introduced)
›Name‹
Burung Merpati Batu
'rock pigeon (bird)' (introduced)
›Name‹
Columba pulchricollis Ashy Pigeon
Ashy Woodpigeon
Ashy wood-pigeon
Ashy wood pigeon
Chim Bồ câu rừng xám
'grey forest pigeon₁ (bird)' (34)
›Name‹
  灰林鸽
(灰林鴿)
huī lín-gē
'grey forest-pigeon'
Taiwan:
(灰林鸽)
灰林鴿
huī lín-gē
'grey forest-pigeon'
タイワンジュズカケバト
(台湾数珠掛鳩)
taiwan juzu-kake-bato
'Taiwanese rosary-hanging? pigeon'
นกพิราบเขาสูง
nók pʰí-râap kʰăw-sŭuŋ
'high-mountain rockdove (bird)'
   
Columba punicea
link to photo
Pale-capped pigeon
Purple wood pigeon

Pigeon marron
Chim Bồ câu nâu
'brown pigeon₁ (bird)' (12, 13, 34)
›Name‹
  紫林鸽
(紫林鴿)
zǐ lín-gē
'purple forest-pigeon'
ムラサキモリバト
(紫森鳩)
murasaki mori-bato
'purple forest-pigeon'
นกลุมพูแดง
nók lum-pʰuu daeeŋ
'red pigeon (bird)'
Burung Pergam Haji
'pilgrimage pigeon (bird)' (haji from Arabic) (25)
 
Streptopelia
Latin
English/French
Vietnamese
Other V
Chinese
Japanese
Thai
Malaysian
Indonesian
Streptopelia orientalis
link to photolink to photo
Oriental turtle dove
Oriental turtle-dove
Eastern turtle dove
Rufous Turtle-dove

Tourterelle orientale
Chim Cu sen
'lotus dove (bird)' (from pale pinkish colour) (12, 13, 34)
Chim Sen
'lotus (bird)' (from pale pinkish colour)
Chim Cu đất
'ground dove (bird)'
Chim Cu cu đất
'ground dove (bird)'
山斑鸠
(山斑鳩)
shān bān-jiū
'mountain striped-dove'
Taiwan:
(金背鸠)
金背鳩
jīn-bèi jiū
'gold-backed dove'
キジバト
(雉鳩)
kiji-bato
'pheasant pigeon'
นกเขาพม่า
nók kʰăw pʰa-mâa
'Burmese dove (bird)'
   
Streptopelia tranquebarica
Oenopopelia tranquebarica
link to photo
Red Collared Dove
or
Red Turtle Dove
Red Collared-dove
Red-collared dove
Red turtle-dove

Tourterelle à tête grise
Chim Cu ngói
'tile dove (bird)' (from terracotta colour) (12, 13, 34)
Chim ngói
'tile bird' (from terracotta colour)
Chim Cu lửa
'fire dove (bird)' (northern)
火斑鸠
(火斑鳩)
huǒ bān-jiū
'fire striped-dove'
Taiwan:
(红鸠)
紅鳩
hóng jiū
'red dove'
ベニバト
(紅鳩)
beni-bato
'crimson pigeon'
นกเขาไฟ
nók kʰăw fay
'fire dove (bird)'
Burung Tekukur Merah
'red dove (bird)' (24, 25, 26)
Burung Dederuk Merah
'red collared-dove (bird)'
Streptopelia chinensis
link to photo
Spotted-Necked Dove
or
Spotted Dove
Spot-necked dove
Spotted turtle dove

Tourterelle tigrine
Chim Cu gáy
'calling dove (bird)' (12, 13, 34)
Chim Gáy
'calling bird'
Chim Cu gấm
'spotted dove (bird)'
Chim Cu cườm
'beaded dove (bird)'
珠颈斑鸠
(珠頸斑鳩)
zhū-jǐng bān-jiū
'bead-necked striped-dove'
Taiwan:
(珠颈斑鸠)
珠頸斑鳩
zhū-jǐng bān-jiū
'bead-necked striped-dove'
カノコバト
(鹿の子鳩)
kanoko-bato
'fawn pigeon' (named after fawn-like spots)
นกเขาใหญ่
nók kʰăw yày
'large dove (bird)'
Burung Merbok Balam
'turtledove zebradove (bird)' (24) (Conflicts with Geopelia striata)
Burung Tekukur
'dove (bird)' (26)
Burung Tekukur Biasa
'common dove (bird)' (25)
Burung Tekukur Biasa
'common dove (bird)'
Macropygia
Latin
English/French
Vietnamese
Other V
Chinese
Japanese
Thai
Malaysian
Indonesian
Macropygia unchall
link to photo
Barred Cuckoo Dove
Barred Cuckoo-dove
Bar-tailed cuckoo dove

Phasianelle onchall
Chim Gầm ghì vằn
'striped pigeon₂ (bird)' (12, 13, 34)
  斑尾鹃鸠
(斑尾鵑鳩)
bān-wěi juān-jiū
'stripe-tailed cuckoo-dove'
Taiwan:
(斑尾鹃鸠)
斑尾鵑鳩
bān-wěi juān-jiū
'stripe-tailed cuckoo-dove'
ヨコジマオナガバト
(横縞尾長鳩)
yoko-jima o-naga bato
'horizontal stripe long-tailed pigeon'
นกเขาลายใหญ่
nók kʰăw laay yày
'large striped dove (bird)'
Burung Tekukur Api Gunung
'mountain fire dove (bird)' (24)
Burung Tekukur Api Besar
'large fire dove (bird)' (26)
Burung Tekukur Gunung
'mountain dove (bird)' (25)
Burung Uncal Loreng
'barred cuckoodove (bird)'
Macropygia ruficeps
link to photo
Little Cuckoo Dove
Little Cuckoo-dove
Lesser cuckoo dove
Lesser red cuckoo dove

Phasianelle à tête rousse
Chim Gầm ghì đầu hung
'reddish-headed pigeon₂ (bird)' (12, 34)
  小鹃鸠
(小鵑鳩)
xiǎo juān-jiū
'small cuckoo-dove' (2)
棕头鹃鸠
(棕頭鵑鳩)
zōng-tóu juān-jiū
'reddishbrown-headed cuckoo-dove' (alt in 1, 3)
小赤鹃鸠
(小赤鵑鳩)
xiǎo chì juān-jiū
'small red cuckoo-dove' (4)
棕头小鹃鸠
(棕頭小鵑鳩)
zōng-tóu xiǎo juān-jiū
'reddishbrown-headed small cuckoo-dove' (5)
ヒメオナガバト
(姫尾長鳩)
hime o-naga bato
'princess long-tailed pigeon'
นกเขาลายเล็ก
nók kʰăw laay lék
'small striped dove (bird)'
Burung Tekukur Api
'fire dove (bird)' (24, 25, 26)
Burung Uncal Kouran
'kouran cuckoodove (bird)'
 
RAPHINAE
SCIENTIFIC & WESTERN
VIETNAMESE
EAST ASIAN
S. E. ASIAN
Treron
Latin
English/French
Vietnamese
Other V
Chinese
Japanese
Thai
Malaysian
Indonesian
Treron fulvicollis
link to photo
Cinnamon-headed green pigeon
Cinnamon-headed green-pigeon

Colombar à cou roux
Chim Cu xanh cổ nâu
'brown-necked blue/green-dove (bird)' (12)
  棕头绿鸠
(棕頭綠鳩)
zōng-tóu lǜ-jiū
'reddishbrown-headed green-dove'
ニッケイアオバト
(肉桂青鳩)
nikkei ao-bato
'cinnamon blue/green-pigeon'
นกเปล้าแดง
nók plâw daeeŋ
'red greenpigeon (bird)'
Burung Punai Bakau
'mangrove greenpigeon (bird)' (24, 25, 26)
Burung Punai Bakau
'mangrove greenpigeon (bird)'
Treron vernans
link to photo
Pink-necked green pigeon
Pink-necked green-pigeon

Colombar giouanne
Chim Cu xanh đầu xám
'grey-headed blue/green-dove (bird)' (12, 34)
  红颈绿鸠
(紅頸綠鳩)
hóng-jǐng lǜ-jiū
'red-necked green-dove'
コアオバト
(小青鳩)
ko ao-bato
'small blue/green-pigeon'
นกเปล้าคอสีม่วง
nók plâw kʰoaa-sĭi-mûaŋ
'purple-necked greenpigeon (bird)'
Burung Punai Gading
'ivory greenpigeon (bird)' (24, 26)
Burung Punai Kericau
'chirping greenpigeon (bird)' (25)
Burung Punai Gading
'ivory greenpigeon (bird)'
Treron bicinctus
Treron bicincta
link to photo
Orange-breasted green pigeon
Orange-breasted green-pigeon

Colombar à double collier
Chim Cu xanh khoang cổ
'streak-necked blue/green-dove (bird)' (12, 34)
  橙胸绿鸠
(橙胸綠鳩)
chéng-xiōng lǜ-jiū
'orange-breasted green-dove'
Taiwan:
(橙胸绿鸠)
橙胸綠鳩
chéng-xiōng lǜ-jiū
'orange-breasted green-dove'
ムネアカアオバト
(胸赤青鳩)
mune-aka ao-bato
'red-breasted blue/green-pigeon'
นกเปล้าอกสีม่วงน้ำตาล
nók plâw òk-sĭi-mûaŋ nám-taan
'brown purple-breasted greenpigeon (bird)'
Burung Punai Siam
'Siamese greenpigeon (bird)' (24, 25, 26)
Burung Punai Siam
'Siamese greenpigeon (bird)'
Treron pompadora
link to photo
Pompadour green pigeon
Pompadour green-pigeon
Ashy-headed green pigeon

Colombar pompadour
Chim Cu xanh đuôi đen
'black-tailed blue/green-dove (bird)' (12, 34)
  灰头绿鸠
(灰頭綠鳩)
huī-tóu lǜ-jiū
'grey-headed green-dove'
ハイビタイアオバト
(灰額青鳩)
hai-bitai ao-bato
'grey-foreheaded blue/green-pigeon'
Treron phayrei:
นกเปล้าหน้าเหลือง
nók plâw nâa-lĕuaŋ
'yellow-faced greenpigeon (bird)'
  Burung Punai Pompadora
'pompadour greenpigeon (bird)'
Treron curvirostra
link to photo
Thick-billed green pigeon
Thick-billed green-pigeon
Thick-billed pigeon

Colombar à gros bec
Chim Cu xanh mỏ quặp
'bent-billed blue/green-dove (bird)' (12, 13, 34)
Cu xanh
'blue/green-dove (bird)'
Cu kỳ
'flag? dove'
厚嘴绿鸠
(厚嘴綠鳩)
hòu-zuǐ lǜ-jiū
'thick-billed green-dove'
ハシブトアオバト
(嘴太青鳩)
hashi-buto ao-bato
'thick-billed blue/green-pigeon'
นกเขาเปล้าธรรมดา
nók kʰăw-plâw tʰam-ma-daa
'common greenpigeon-dove (bird)'
Burung Punai Daun
'leaf greenpigeon (bird)' (26) (Conflicts with Treron olax)
Burung Punai Lengguak
'thickbilledgreenpigeon greenpigeon (bird)' (24, 25)
Burung Punai Lengguak
'thickbilledgreenpigeon greenpigeon (bird)' (Wikipedia)
Latin
English/French
Vietnamese
Other V
Chinese
Japanese
Thai
Malaysian
Indonesian
Treron phoenicopterus
Treron phoenicoptera
link to photo
Yellow-legged green pigeon
Yellow-footed green-pigeon

Colombar commandeur
Chim Cu xanh chân vàng
'yellow-legged blue/green-dove (bird)' (12, 34)
  黄脚绿鸠
(黃腳綠鳩)
huáng-jiǎo lǜ-jiū
'yellow-legged green-dove'
キアシアオバト
(黄足青鳩)
ki-ashi ao-bato
'yellow-legged blue/green-pigeon'
นกเปล้าขาเหลือง
nók plâw kʰăa-lĕuaŋ
'yellow-legged greenpigeon (bird)'
   
Treron apicauda
link to photo
Pin-tailed green pigeon
Pin-tailed green-pigeon

Colombar à longue queue
Chim Cu xanh đuôi nhọn
'sharp-tailed blue/green-dove (bird)' (12, 34)
  针尾绿鸠
(針尾綠鳩)
zhēn-wěi lǜ-jiū
'needle-tailed green-dove'
ハリオアオバト
(針尾青鳩)
hari-o ao-bato
'needle-tailed blue/green-pigeon'
นกเปล้าหางเข็ม
nók plâw hăaŋ-kʰĕm
'needle-tailed greenpigeon (bird)'
   
Treron seimundi
link to photo
Yellow-vented green pigeon
Yellow-vented green-pigeon
Yellow-vented pin-tailed pigeon
Yellow-vented pin-tailed green pigeon

Colombar de Seimund
Chim Cu xanh Seimun
'Seimund blue/green-dove (bird)' (12, 34)
Chim Cu xanh đít vàng
'yellow-vented blue/green-dove (bird)' (alt in 34)
    白腹针尾绿鸠
(白腹針尾綠鳩)
bái-fù zhēn-wěi lǜ-jiū
'white-bellied needle-tailed green-dove'
シロハラハリオアオバト
(白腹針尾青鳩)
shiro-hara hari-o ao-bato
'white-bellied needle-tailed blue/green-pigeon'
นกเปล้าหางเข็มหัวปีกแดง
nók plâw hăaŋ-kʰĕm hŭa-pìik-daeeŋ
'red-wing-coverted needle-tailed greenpigeon (bird)'
Burung Punai Gunung
'mountain greenpigeon (bird)' (24)
Burung Punai Ekor Panjang
'long-tailed greenpigeon (bird)' (25)
Burung Punai Ekor Runcing
'sharp-tailed greenpigeon (bird)' (26)
 
Treron sphenurus
Treron sphenura
link to photo
Wedge-tailed green pigeon
Wedge-tailed green-pigeon

Colombar chanteur
Chim Cu xanh sáo
'starling blue/green-dove (bird)' (12, 34)
  楔尾绿鸠
(楔尾綠鳩)
xiē-wěi lǜ-jiū
'wedge-tailed green-dove'
オナガアオバト
(尾長青鳩)
o-naga ao-bato
'long-tailed blue/green-pigeon'
นกเปล้าหางพลั่ว
nók plâw hăaŋ-pʰlûa
'shovel-tailed greenpigeon (bird)'
Burung Punai Bukit
'hill greenpigeon (bird)' (24, 25)
Burung Punai Gunung
'mountain greenpigeon (bird)' (26)
Burung Punai Gagak
'crow greenpigeon (bird)'
Treron sieboldii
link to photo
White-bellied green pigeon
White-bellied green-pigeon
Japanese green pigeon
Siebold's green pigeon
White-bellied wedge-tailed green pigeon

Colombar de Siebold
Chim Cu xanh bụng trắng
'white-bellied blue/green-dove (bird)' (12, 13, 34)
  红翅绿鸠
(紅翅綠鳩)
hóng-chì lǜ-jiū
'red-winged green-dove'
Taiwan:
(绿鸠)
綠鳩
lǜ-jiū
'green-dove'
アオバト
(青鳩)
ao-bato
'blue/green-pigeon'
นกเปล้าท้องขาว
nók plâw tʰóaaŋ-kʰăaw
'white-bellied greenpigeon (bird)'
   
Caloenas
Latin
English/French
Vietnamese
Other V
Chinese
Japanese
Thai
Malaysian
Indonesian
Caloenas nicobarica
link to photo
Nicobar pigeon
Vulturine pigeon

Nicobar à camail
Chim Bồ câu Nicoba
'Nicobar pigeon₁ (bird)'
›Name‹ (12)
Chim Bồ câu Nicôba
'Nicobar pigeon₁ (bird)' (34)
  尼柯巴鸠
(尼柯巴鳩)
nìkēbā jiū
'Nicobar dove' (4)
尼科巴鸠
(尼科巴鳩)
nìkēbā jiū
'Nicobar dove' (5)
ミノバト
(蓑鳩)
mino-bato
'straw-caped pigeon'
นกชาปีไหน
nók cʰaa-pii-năy
'cʰaa-pii-năy bird'
Burung Punai Emas
'gold greenpigeon (bird)'
Burung Punai Mas
'gold greenpigeon (bird)' (24, 25)
Burung Merpati Emas
'gold pigeon (bird)' (26)
›Name‹
Burung Junai Emas
'gold nicobarpigeon (bird)'
Chalcophaps
Latin
English/French
Vietnamese
Other V
Chinese
Japanese
Thai
Malaysian
Indonesian
Chalcophaps indica
link to photolink to photo
Emerald dove

Colombine turvert
Chim Cu luồng
'large-bamboo? dove (bird)' (12, 13, 34)
  绿翅金鸠
(綠翅金鳩)
lǜ-chì jīn-jiū
'green-winged gold-dove'
Taiwan:
(翠翼鸠)
翠翼鳩
cuì-yì-jiū
'jade-winged dove'
キンバト
(金鳩)
kin-bato
'gold pigeon'
นกเขาเขียว
nók kʰăw kʰĭaw
'green dove (bird)' (conflicts with Treron curvirostra)
Burung Punai Tanah
'ground greenpigeon (bird)' (24, 25, 26)
Burung Delimukan Zamrud
'emerald grounddove (bird)'
Ducula
Latin
English/French
Vietnamese
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Ducula aenea
link to photo
Green imperial pigeon
Green imperial-pigeon

Carpophage pauline
Chim Gầm ghì lưng xanh
'blue/green-backed pigeon₂ (bird)' (12, 13, 34)
  绿皇鸠
(綠皇鳩)
lǜ huáng-jiū
'green emperor-dove'
ミカドバト
(帝鳩)
mikado-bato
'emperor pigeon'
นกลุมพู
nók lum-pʰuu
'pigeon (bird)'
นกลุมพูเขียว
nók lum-pʰuu kʰĭaw
'green pigeon (bird)'
Burung Pergam
'pigeon (bird)' (26)
Burung Pergam Besar
'large pigeon (bird)' (24, 25)
Burung Pergam Hijau
'green pigeon (bird)'
Ducula badia
link to photo
Mountain imperial pigeon
Mountain imperial-pigeon
Imperial pigeon

Carpophage à manteau brun
Chim Gầm ghì lưng nâu
'brown-backed pigeon₂ (bird)' (12, 34)
  皇鸠
(皇鳩)
huáng-jiū
'emperor-dove' (2, 4)
山皇鸠
(山皇鳩)
shān huáng-jiū
'mountain emperor-dove' (1, 3, 5)
ヤマミカドバト
(山帝鳩)
yama mikado-bato
'mountain emperor pigeon'
นกมูม
nók muum
'muum bird' (onomat.)
Burung Pergam Gunung
'mountain pigeon (bird)' (24, 25)
Burung Pergam Bukit
'hill pigeon (bird)' (26)
Burung Pergam Gunung
'mountain pigeon (bird)'
Ducula bicolor
link to photo
Pied imperial pigeon
Pied imperial-pigeon

Carpophage blanc
Chim Gầm ghì trắng
'white pigeon₂ (bird)' (12, 34)
  斑皇鸠
(斑皇鳩)
bān huáng-jiū
'striped emperor-dove'
ソデグロバト
(袖黒鳩)
sode-guro bato
'black-sleeved pigeon'
นกลุมพูขาว
nók lum-pʰuu kʰăaw
'white pigeon (bird)'
Burung Pergam Rawa
'swamp pigeon (bird)' (24, 25)
Burung Rawa
'swamp bird' (26)
Burung Pergam Laut
'sea pigeon (bird)'

หัวปีก hŭa-pìik, literally 'wing-head', is an avian anatomical term for the alula. As used here the meaning is extended to cover a larger area including the wing coverts which are usually differently named.

中国鸟类种和亚种分类名录大全(修订版) 郑作新 著 科学出版社 北京 2000年
A Complete Checklist of Species and Subspecies of the Chinese Birds (Revised Edition) by Cheng Tso-Hsin, Science Press, Beijing 2000

中国鸟类分类与分布名录 主编:郑光美 科学出版社 北京 2005年
A Checklist on the Classification and Distribution of the Birds of China Chief editor: Zheng Guangmei, Science Press, Beijing 2005

中国鸟类野外手册(中文版)约翰・马敬能、卡伦・菲利普斯,合作者:荷芬奇,翻译:卢和芬 湖南教育出版社 长沙 2000年
A Field Guide to the Birds of China (Chinese translation) by John MacKinnon, Karen Phillipps, in collaboration with He Fen-qi, translated by Lu Hefen, Hunan Jiaoyu Chubanshe (Hunan Educational Press) Changsha 2000

世界鸟类分类与分布名录 主编:郑光美 科学出版社 北京 2002年
A Checklist on the Classification and Distribution of the Birds of the World Chief editor: Zheng Guangmei, Science Press, Beijing 2002

世界鸟类名称(拉丁文、汉文、英文对照)第二版 郑作新等 科学出版社 北京 2002年
Birds of the World (Latin, Chinese and English Names) 2nd ed. by Cheng Tso-Hsin et al, Science Press, Beijing 2002

Danh Lục Chim Việt Nam (In lần thứ hai) (Checklist of the Birds of Vietnam) Võ Quý, Nguyễn Cử, Nhà Xuất Bản Nông Nghiệp, Hà Nội 1999

Chim Việt Nam Nguyễn Cử, Lê Trọng Trải, Karen Phillipps; Nhà Xuất Bản Lao Động - Xã Hội, 2000

Senarai Nama-nama Burung Semenanjung Malaysia dan Asia Tenggara by Ismail, Abdul Rahman, Perhilitan (Jabatam Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara, Semenanjung Malaysia), Kuala Lumpur 1981
(List of the Names of Birds of Peninsular Malaysia and Southeast Asia by Ismail, Abdul Rahman, Department of Wildlife and National Parks, Peninsular Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 1981)

The Birds of the Thai-Malay Peninsula: Vol. 1 - Non-passerines by Wells, David R., Academic Press, London 1999

A Field Guide to the Birds of West Malaysia and Singapore by Jeyarajasingam, Allen and Alan Pearson, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1999

Danh Lục Các Loài Chim ở Việt Nam (Latinh, Việt, Pháp, Hán) Trần Văn Chánh 2008-2009