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Laridae
Цахлайнхан
tsakhlaiŋkhaŋ

鸥科
ōu kē

鷗科
ōu kē

カモメ科
kamome ka

갈매기과
galmaegi-gwa

Martıgiller

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General

This list is 'in beta'. Information is from dictionaries and other sources. Kazakh, Turkish, and Korean glosses are tentative. Comments and corrections welcome. Hover over Green Lettering Green lettering at this site hides a tool tip with glosses, further explanations, etc. Hover cursor to reveal. to see additional information.

Mongolian has a number of names for the Laridae.

Gulls:

1. The general Mongolian name for all larids is Цахлай tsakhlai, glossed here as 'gull', which is also found in the form Захлай zakhlai. The Buryat name is Сахали sakhali. The Kalmyk name for the gulls is Цах tsakh.

2. An alternative name for larger gulls is Хайлган khailgaŋ or Хайлгана khailgan (now used ornithologically for the skuas/jaegars). The Buryat name is and Хайлгана khailgana.

3. A name for riverine terns or gulls is Амуулай amuulai or Амлай amlai.

Terns:

Systematic differentiation of the terns from the gulls appears to be a relatively modern ornithological innovation.

1. In Mongolia, the terns are called Хараалай kharaalai, a word that is missing from most ordinary dictionaries and appears to be a portmanteau of хараацай kharaatsai 'swallow' and цахлай tsakhlai 'gull'. (However, there is an alternative form Хараалзай kharaalzai, that is also missing in many dictionaries and less identifiable as a portmanteau.)

2. Under earlier Inner Mongolian usage, terns in the genus Sterna were known by the full form Хараацайч цахлай kharaatsaich tsakhlai 'swallow-gull' or Хараацайлаг цахлай kharaatsailag tsakhlai 'swallow-like gull'. Both are clearly based on Chinese 燕鸥 yàn'ōu 'swallow gull'.

Ornithological naming

The earlier Mongolian ornithological list classed the Larinae into two groups: the gulls or Цахлай tsakhlai, and the terns or Хараалай kharaalai. This division is based on Western ornithological usage. By contrast, the Inner Mongolian names closely followed Chinese naming, classing all larids as a type of 'gull' (Chinese ōu 'gull', Mongolian Цахлай tsakhlai 'gull').

In the 2007 "binomial" Mongolian list, each genus is assigned a different name, as in the following table. Note that genera differ from the latest Howard and Moore list.

Genus Inner M (old) Inner M Old New
Larus (H&M4 Chroicocephalus, Hydrocoloeus, Ichthyaetus, Larus)
Gulls
Inner M formerly:
Цахлай
tsakhlai
Inner M:
Цахлай
tsakhlai
Mongolia formerly:
Цахлай
tsakhlai
Цахлай
tsakhlai
Rhodostethia
Ross's Gull
- - Mongolia formerly:
Цахлай
tsakhlai
Ягаандай
yagaandai
Rissa
Kittiwakes
- - Mongolia formerly:
Цахлай
tsakhlai
Захлай
zakhlai
Gelochelidon
Gull-billed Tern
- Inner M:
Хараалай
kharaalai
Mongolia formerly:
Хараалай
kharaalai
Aмуулай
amuulai
Hydroprogne
Caspian Tern
- Inner M:
Хараалай
kharaalai
Mongolia formerly:
Хараалай
kharaalai
Шунгуулай
shuŋguulai
Chlidonias
Marsh Terns
Inner M formerly:
Тэнүүл цахлай
tenüül tsakhlai
'floating gull'
Inner M:
Хараалай
kharaalai
Тэнүүл цахлай
tenüül tsakhlai
'floating gull'
Mongolia formerly:
Хараалай
kharaalai
Хараалзай
kharaalzai
Sterna
(H&M4 Sterna and Sternula)
Terns
Inner M formerly:
Хараацайлаг цахлай
kharaalailag tsakhlai
'swallow gull'
Inner M:
Хараацай цахлай
kharaatsai tsakhlai
'swallow gull'
Mongolia formerly:
Хараалай
kharaalai
Хараалай
kharaalai

The new generic names are based on existing variants (Захлай zakhlai, Хараалзай kharaalzai) or other existing names (Aмуулай amuulai), or may be new coinages (Ягаандай yagaandai based on ягаан yagaaŋ meaning 'pink', and Шунгуулай shuŋguulai, yet another name based on the verb шунгах shuŋgakh 'to dive').

The Inner Mongolian names have been brought somewhat closer to pre-2007 Mongolian usage by the adoption of Хараалай kharaalai for some of the terns, although not on a consistent basis.

Note

With the breakup of the Larus argentatus (Herring Gull) complex, it is difficult to get clear information on the distribution or naming of species. In the species table below, the species occurring in Mongolia are tentatively treated as Larus fuscus (L. f. heuglini) and L. smithsonianus.

Species names

› ABOUT THIS TABLE‹
LARINAE
SCIENTIFIC & WESTERN
MONGOLIAN
EAST ASIAN
TURKIC
Rissa
Latin
English/Russian
Mongolian
Inner M
Other M
Chinese
Japanese
Korean
Kazakh
Turkish
Rissa tridactyla
Larus tridactylus
link to photolink to photo
Black-legged kittiwake
Kittiwake

Моевка,
Обыкновенная моевка
Гурванхуруут захлай
ᠭᠣᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠷᠣᠭᠣᠲᠣ ᠵᠠᠬᠠᠯᠠᠢ
gurveŋ-khuruut zakhlai
'three-toed gull'
  Mongolia formerly:
Гурван хуруут цахлай
ᠭᠣᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠷᠣᠭᠣᠲᠣ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
gurveŋ khuruut zakhlai
'three-toed gull'
三趾鸥
(三趾鷗)
sān-zhǐ ōu
'three-toed gull'
Taiwan:
(三趾鸥)
三趾鷗
sān-zhǐ ōu
'three-toed gull'
ミツユビカモメ
(三つ趾鴎)
mitsu-yubi kamome
'three-toed gull'
세가락갈매기
se-garak-galmaegi
'three-toed gull'
Үшсаусақты шағала
üş-sawsaqtı şağala
'three-toed gull'
Karayaklı Martı
'black-burned? gull'
Chroicocephalus
Latin
English/Russian
Mongolian
Inner M
Other M
Chinese
Japanese
Korean
Kazakh
Turkish
Chroicocephalus genei
Larus genei
link to photolink to photo
Slender-billed gull

Морской голубок,
Тонкоклювая чайка
Larus genei:
Шөвгөр цахлай
ᠱᠦᠪᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
shövgör tsakhlai
'sharp-pointed gull'
    Larus genei:
细嘴鸥
(細嘴鷗)
xì-zuǐ ōu
'slender-billed gull'
Larus genei:
ハシボソカモメ
(嘴細鴎)
hashi-boso kamome
'slender-billed gull'
Larus genei:
기린목갈매기
girin-mok-galmaegi
'qilin-necked gull'
or
긴목갈매기
gin-mok-galmaegi
'long-necked gull'
Теңіз шағаласы
teñiz şağalası
'sea gull'
İncegagalı Martı
'slender-billed gull'
Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus
Larus brunnicephalus
link to photolink to photo
Brown-headed gull
Indian black-headed gull

Буроголовоя чайка
Larus brunnicephalus:
Бортолгойт цахлай
ᠪᠣᠷᠣ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠢᠢᠲᠣ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
bor-tolgoit tsakhlai
'dun-headed gull'
Larus brunnicephalus:
Бараан толгойт цахлай
ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠢᠢᠲᠣ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
baraaŋ tolgoit tsakhlai
'dark-headed gull' (32)
Mongolia formerly:
Бор толгойт цахлай
ᠪᠣᠷᠣ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠢᠢᠲᠣ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
bor tolgoit tsakhlai
'dun-headed gull'
Larus brunnicephalus:
棕头鸥
(棕頭鷗)
zōng-tóu ōu
'reddishbrown-headed gull'
Taiwan:
Larus brunnicephalus:
(棕头鸥)
棕頭鷗
zōng-tóu ōu
'reddishbrown-headed gull'
Larus brunnicephalus:
チャガシラカモメ
(茶頭鴎)
cha-gashira kamome
'brown-headed gull'
     
Chroicocephalus ridibundis
Larus ridibundis
link to photolink to photo
Black-headed Gull
Common Black-headed Gull

Озерная чайка,
Обыкновенная речная
Larus ridibundis:
Хүрэнтолгойт цахлай
ᠬᠦᠷᠡᠩ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠢᠢᠲᠣ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
khüren-tolgoit tsakhlai
'darkbrown-headed gull'
Larus ridibundis:
Хушуу улаан цахлай
ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠣ ᠣᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
khushuu ulaaŋ tsakhlai
'red-bill gull' (31, 32)
Mongolia formerly:
Хүрэн толгойт цахлай
ᠬᠦᠷᠡᠩ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠢᠢᠲᠣ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
khüren tolgoit tsakhlai
'darkbrown-headed gull'
Larus ridibundis:
红嘴鸥
(紅嘴鷗)
hóng-zuǐ ōu
'red-billed gull'
Taiwan:
Larus ridibundis:
(红嘴鸥)
紅嘴鷗
hóng-zuǐ ōu
'red-billed gull'
Larus ridibundis:
ユリカモメ
(百合鴎)
yuri kamome
'lily gull'
Larus ridibundis:
붉은부리갈매기
bulgeun-buri-galmaegi
'red-billed gull'
Көл шағала
köl şağala
'numerous ???? gull'
Karabaş Martı
'black-headed gull'
Hydrocoloeus
Latin
English/Russian
Mongolian
Inner M
Other M
Chinese
Japanese
Korean
Kazakh
Turkish
Hydrocoloeus minutus
Larus minutus
link to photolink to photo
Little gull

Малая чайка
Larus minutus:
Хурган цахлай
ᠬᠣᠷᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
khurgaŋ tsakhlai
'lamb gull'
Larus minutus:
Хурган цахлай
ᠬᠣᠷᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
khurgaŋ tsakhlai
'lamb gull' (32)
  小鸥
(小鷗)
xiǎo-ōu
'small gull'
Taiwan:
(小鸥)
小鷗
xiǎo-ōu
'small gull'
ヒメカモメ
(姫鴎)
hime kamome
'princess gull'
  Кіші шағала
kişi şağala
'small gull'
Küçük Martı
'small gull'
Rhodostethia
Latin
English/Russian
Mongolian
Inner M
Other M
Chinese
Japanese
Korean
Kazakh
Turkish
Rhodostethia rosea
Larus roseus
link to photolink to photo
Ross's gull
Wedge-tailed gull

Розовая чайка
Хүзүүвчит ягаандай
ᠬᠦᠵᠦᠭᠦᠪᠴᠢᠲᠦ ᠶᠠᠭᠠᠨᠳᠠᠢ
khüzüüvchit yagaandai
'collared pinkbird'
  Mongolia formerly:
Ягаан цахлай
ᠶᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
yagaaŋ tsakhlai
'pink gull'
楔尾鸥
(楔尾鷗)
xiē-wěi ōu
'wedge-tailed gull'
ヒメクビワカモメ
(姫首輪鴎)
hime kubi-wa kamome
'princess neck-ringed gull'
쇠목테갈매기
soe-mok-te-galmaegi
'small throat-banded gull'
   
Ichthyaetus
Latin
English/Russian
Mongolian
Inner M
Other M
Chinese
Japanese
Korean
Kazakh
Turkish
Ichthyaetus relictus
Larus relictus
link to photolink to photo
Relict gull
Relic gull

Реликтовая чайка
Larus relictus:
Реликт цахлай
ᠷᠧᠯᠢᠺᠲ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
relikt tsakhlai
'relikt gull'
Larus relictus:
Ховор цахлай
ᠬᠣᠪᠣᠷ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
khovor tsakhlai
'rare gull' (32)
  遗鸥
(遺鷗)
yí-ōu
'relic gull'
ゴビズキンカモメ
(ゴビ頭巾鴎)
gobi zukin kamome
'Gobi hooded gull'
적호갈매기
jeokho-galmaegi
'jeokho gull'
or
고대갈매기
godae-galmaegi
'ancient gull'
Мойнақ
moynaq
'moynaq'
or
Алакөз
alaköz
'motley-eye?'
 
Ichthyaetus ichthyaetus
Larus ichthyaetus
link to photolink to photolink to photo
Pallas's Gull
or
Great Black-headed Gull

Черноголовый хохотун
Larus ichthyaetus:
Итэлгэн цахлай
ᠢᠳᠥᠯᠭᠡᠨ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
itelgeŋ tsakhlai
'falcon gull'
Larus ichthyaetus:
Итэлгэн цахлай
ᠢᠳᠣᠯᠭᠡᠨ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
itelgeŋ tsakhlai
'falcon gull' (32)
  Larus ichthyaetus:
渔鸥
(漁鷗)
yú-ōu
'fishing gull'
Taiwan:
(渔鸥)
漁鷗
yú-ōu
'fishing gull'
Larus ichthyaetus:
オオズグロカモメ
(大頭黒鴎)
ō zu-guro kamome
'large black-headed gull'
Larus ichthyaetus:
큰검은머리갈매기
keun-geomeun-meori-galmaegi
'large black-headed gull'
Қарабас өгізшағала
qara-bas ögiz-şağala
'black-headed yellow gull'
Büyük Karabaş Martı
'large black-headed gull'
Larus
Latin
English/Russian
Mongolian
Inner M
Other M
Chinese
Japanese
Korean
Kazakh
Turkish
Larus crassirostris
link to photolink to photolink to photo
Black-tailed gull
Japanese gull

Чернохвостая чайка
Харсүүлт цахлай
ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯᠲᠦ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
khar-süült tsakhlai
'black-tailed gull'
Сүүл хар цахлай
ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
süül khar tsakhlai
'tail-black gull' (32)
Mongolia formerly:
Хар сүүлт цахлай
ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯᠲᠦ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
khar süült tsakhlai
'black-tailed gull'
黑尾鸥
(黑尾鷗)
hēi-wěi ōu
'black-tailed gull'
Taiwan:
(黑尾鸥)
黑尾鷗
hēi-wěi ōu
'black-tailed gull'
ウミネコ
(海猫)
umi-neko
'sea cat'
괭이갈매기
gwaengi-galmaegi
'cat gull'
   
Larus canus
link to photolink to photolink to photo
Mew gull
Common gull

Сизая чайка
Үүлэн цахлай
ᠡᠭᠦᠯᠡᠨ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
üüleŋ tsakhlai
'cloud gull'
Цахлай
ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
tsakhlai
'gull' (31, 32)
  海鸥
(海鷗)
hǎi ōu
'sea gull'
Taiwan:
(海鸥)
海鷗
hǎi ōu
'sea gull'
カモメ
()
kamome
'gull'
갈매기
galmaegi
'gull'
Көк шағала
kök şağala
'blue gull'
Küçük Gümüş Martı
'small silver-gull'
Larus fuscus
link to photo
Lesser black-backed gull Үхэр цахлай
ᠦᠬᠡᠷ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
ükher tsakhlai
'ox gull'
›Taxonomy‹
  Mongolia formerly:
Бархираа цахлай
ᠪᠠᠷᠬᠢᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
barkh'raa tsakhlai
'screaming gull'
小黑背银鸥
(小黑背銀鷗)
xiǎo hēi-bèi yín-ōu
'silver-gull' (2, 5)
›Taxonomy‹
Taiwan:
(小黑背鸥)
小黑背鷗
xiǎo hēi-bèi yín-ōu
'silver-gull'
›Taxonomy‹
ニシセグロカモメ
(西背黒鴎)
nishi se-guro kamome
'western black-backed gull'
›Taxonomy‹
줄무늬노랑발갈매기
jul-munui-norang-bal-galmaegi
'stripe-patterned yellow-legged gull'
   
Larus smithsonianus American Herring Gull Larus argentatus:
Мөнгөлөг цахлай
ᠮᠦᠩᠭᠦᠯᠢᠭ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
möŋglög tsakhlai
'silverish-gull'
Larus argentatus:
Мөнгөн цахлай
ᠮᠦᠩᠭᠦᠨ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
möŋgöŋ tsakhlai
'silver gull' (31, 32)
  Larus argentatus:
银鸥
(銀鷗)
yín-ōu
'silver-gull'
›Taxonomy‹
Taiwan:
Larus argentatus:
(银鸥)
銀鷗
yín-ōu
'silver-gull'
›Taxonomy‹
Larus argentatus:
セグロカモメ
(背黒鴎)
se-guro kamome
'black-backed gull'
›Taxonomy‹
Larus argentatus smithsonianus:
옅은재갈매기
yeoteun-jae-galmaegi
'pale ash gull'
›Taxonomy‹
   
Larus hyperboreus
link to photolink to photolink to photo
Glaucous gull

Большая полярная чайка,
Бургомистр
Мөсний цахлай
ᠮᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
mösni tsakhlai
'ice gull'
    北极鸥
(北極鷗)
běi jí ōu
'north pole gull'
Taiwan:
(北极鸥)
北極鷗
běi jí ōu
'north pole gull'
シロカモメ
(白鴎)
shiro-kamome
'white gull'
흰갈매기
huin-galmaegi
'white gull'
Дуанбас
dwanbas
'dwanbas'
Kutup Martısı
'polar gull'
 
STERNINAE
SCIENTIFIC & WESTERN
MONGOLIAN
EAST ASIAN
TURKIC
Sternula
Latin
English/Russian
Mongolian
Inner M
Other M
Chinese
Japanese
Korean
Kazakh
Turkish
Sternula albifrons
Sterna albifrons
link to photolink to photo
Little tern

Малая крачка
Sterna albifrons:
Хурган хараалай
ᠬᠣᠷᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠢ
khurgaŋ kharaalai
'lamb tern'
Sterna albifrons:
Цагаан магнайт хараацай цахлай
ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠮᠠᠩᠨᠠᠢᠢᠳᠣ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠴᠠᠢ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
tsagaaŋ magnait kharaatsai tsakhlai
'white-forehead swallow gull' (32)
Inner M formerly:
Магнай цагаан хараацайлаг цахлай
ᠮᠠᠩᠨᠠᠢ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠴᠠᠢᠢᠯᠢᠭ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
magnai tsagaaŋ kharaatsailag tsakhlai
'white-foreheaded swallow-like gull' (31)
Sterna albifrons:
白额燕鸥
(白額燕鷗)
bái-é yàn-ōu
'white-foreheaded swallow-gull'
Taiwan:
Sterna albifrons:
(小燕鸥)
小燕鷗
xiǎo yàn-ōu
'little swallow-gull'
Sterna albifrons:
コアジサシ
(小鯵刺)
ko-aji-sashi
'little tern' (aji-sashi written 'horse-mackerel stabber')
쇠제비갈매기
soe-jebi-galmaegi
'small swallow-gull'
Кіші қарқылдақ
kişi qarqıldaq
'small tern'
Küçük Sumru
'small tern'
Gelochelidon
Latin
English/Russian
Mongolian
Inner M
Other M
Chinese
Japanese
Korean
Kazakh
Turkish
Gelochelidon nilotica
Sterna nilotica
link to photolink to photo
Gull-billed tern

Чайконосая крачка
Бахим амуулай
ᠪᠠᠬᠢᠮ ᠠᠮᠣᠯᠠᠢ

bakhim amuulai
'short-stout amuulai'
Бахим хараалай
ᠪᠠᠬᠢᠮ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠢ
bakhim kharaalai
'short-stout tern' (32)
Mongolia formerly:
Бахим хараалай
ᠪᠠᠬᠢᠮ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠢ
bakhim kharaalai
'short-stout tern'
鸥嘴噪鸥
(鷗嘴噪鷗)
ōu-zuǐ zào-ōu
'gull-billed noisy gull'
Taiwan
(鸥嘴燕鸥)
鷗嘴燕鷗
ōu-zuǐ yàn-ōu
'gull-billed swallow-gull'
ハシブトアジサシ
(嘴太鯵刺)
hashi-buto aji-sashi
'thick-billed tern' (aji-sashi written 'horse-mackerel stabber')
큰부리제비갈매기
keun-buri-jebi-galmaegi
'large-billed swallow-gull'
Қаратұмсық қарқылдақ
qara-tumsıq qarqıldaq
'black-billed tern'
Gülen Sumru
'laughing tern'
Hydroprogne
Latin
English/Russian
Mongolian
Inner M
Other M
Chinese
Japanese
Korean
Kazakh
Turkish
Hydroprogne caspia
Sterna caspia
Hydroprogne tschegrava
link to photolink to photo
Caspian tern

Чеграва
Морин шунгуулай
ᠮᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠢ
moriŋ shuŋguulai
'horse divinggull'
Морин хараалай
ᠮᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠢ
moriŋ kharaalai
'horse tern' (32)
Mongolia formerly:
Морин хараалай
ᠮᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠱᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠠᠢ
moriŋ kharaalai
'horse tern'
红嘴巨鸥
(紅嘴巨鷗)
hóng-zuǐ jù-ōu
'red-billed giant gull'
or
黑海巨鸥
(黑海巨鷗)
hēi-hǎi jù-ōu
'Black Sea giant gull' (alt in 5)
Taiwan:
(里海燕鸥)
裏海燕鷗
lǐ hǎi yàn-ōu
'inland sea (=Caspian Sea) swallow-gull'
オニアジサシ
(鬼鯵刺)
oni aji-sashi
'ogre tern' (aji-sashi written 'horse-mackerel stabber')
붉은부리큰제비갈매기
bulgeun-buri-keun-jebi-galmaegi
'red-billed large swallow-gull'
Үлкен қарқылдақ
ülken qarqıldaq
'large tern'
Büyük Sumru
'large tern'
Chlidonias
Latin
English/Russian
Mongolian
Inner M
Other M
Chinese
Japanese
Korean
Kazakh
Turkish
Chlidonias hybrida
Chlidonias hybridus
Sterna hybrida
link to photolink to photo
Whiskered tern

Белощекая крачка
Цагааншанаа хараалзай
ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠠ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠵᠠᠢ
tsagaaŋ-shanaa kharaalzai
'white-cheek tern (variant form)'
Шанаа цагаан хараалай
ᠰᠢᠨᠠ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
shanaa tsagaaŋ kharaalai
'white-cheek tern' (32)
Mongolia formerly:
Шанаа цагаан хараалай
ᠰᠢᠨᠠ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
shanaa tsagaaŋ kharaalai
'white-cheek tern'
Inner M formerly:
Сахалт тэнүүл цахлай
ᠰᠠᠬᠠᠯᠲᠣ ᠲᠡᠨᠦᠭᠦᠯ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
sakhalt tenüül tsakhlai
'whiskered floating gull' (31)
须浮鸥
(鬚浮鷗)
xū fú-ōu
'whiskered floating-gull'
Taiwan:
(黑腹燕鸥)
黑腹燕鷗
hēi-fù yàn-ōu
'black-bellied swallow-gull'
クロハラアジサシ
(黒腹鯵刺)
kuro-hara aji-sashi
'black-bellied tern' (aji-sashi written 'horse-mackerel stabber')
구레나룻제비갈매기
gurenarut-jebi-galmaegi
'whiskered swallow-gull'
Ақжағал қарқылдақ
aq-jağal qarqıldaq
'white-speckled tern'
Bıyıklı Sumru
'whiskered tern'
Chlidonias leucopterus
Sterna leucoptera
link to photolink to photo
White-winged Tern
White-winged Black Tern

Белокрылая крачка
Буурал хараалзай
ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠯ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠵᠠᠢ
buural kharaalzai
'greyish tern (variant form)'
Цагаан далавчит тэнүүл цахлай
ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠪᠴᠢᠲᠣ ᠲᠡᠨᠦᠭᠦᠯ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
tsagaaŋ dalavchit tenüül tsakhlai
'white-winged floating gull' (31, 32)
Mongolia formerly:
Буурал хараалай
ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠯ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
buural kharaalai
'greyish tern'
白翅浮鸥
(白翅浮鷗)
bái-chì fú-ōu
'white-winged floating-gull'
Taiwan:
(白翅黑燕鸥)
白翅黑燕鷗
bái-chì hēi yàn-ōu
'white-winged black swallow-gull'
ハジロクロハラアジサシ
(羽白黒腹鯵刺)
ha-jiro kuro-hara aji-sashi
'white-winged black-bellied tern' (aji-sashi written 'horse-mackerel stabber')
흰죽지갈매기
huin-jukji-galmaegi
'white wingjoint gull'
Аққанат қарқылдақ
aq-qanat qarqıldaq
'white-winged tern'
Akkanatlı Sumru
'white-winged tern'
Chlidonias niger
Chlidonias nigra
Sterna nigra
link to photo
Black tern

Черная крачка
Хилэн хараалзай
ᠬᠢᠯᠡᠩ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠵᠠᠢ
khileŋ kharaalzai
'velvet tern (variant form)'
Хилэн хараалай
ᠬᠢᠯᠡᠩ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠢ
khileŋ kharaalai
'velvet tern' (32)
Mongolia formerly:
Хилэн хараалай
ᠬᠢᠯᠡᠩ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠢ
khileŋ kharaalai
'velvet tern'
黑浮鸥
(黑浮鷗)
hēi fú-ōu
'black floating-gull'
Taiwan:
(黑浮鸥)
黑浮鷗
hēi fú-ōu
'black floating-gull'
ハシグロクロハラアジサシ
(嘴黒黒腹鯵刺)
hashi-guro kuro-hara aji-sashi
'black-billed black-bellied tern' (aji-sashi written 'horse-mackerel stabber')
검은제비갈매기
geomeun-jebi-galmaegi
'black swallow-gull'
Қара қарқылдақ
qara qarqıldaq
'black tern'
Kara Sumru
'black tern'
Sterna
Latin
English/Russian
Mongolian
Inner M
Other M
Chinese
Japanese
Korean
Kazakh
Turkish
Sterna hirundo
link to photolink to photo
Common tern

Речная крачка,
Обыкновенная крачка
Эгэл хараалай
ᠡᠭᠡᠯ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠢ
egel kharaalai
'common tern'
Хараацай цахлай
ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠴᠠᠢ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
kharaatsai tsakhlai
'swallow gull' (32)
Mongolia formerly:
Хараалай
ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠢ
kharaalai
'tern'
Inner M formerly:
Хараацайлаг цахлай
ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠴᠠᠢᠢᠯᠢᠭ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
kharaatsailag tsakhlai
'swallow-like gull' (31)
普通燕鸥
(普通燕鷗)
pǔtōng yàn-ōu
'common swallow-gull'
Taiwan:
(燕鸥)
燕鷗
yàn-ōu
'swallow-gull'
アジサシ
(鯵刺)
aji-sashi
'tern' (aji-sashi written 'horse-mackerel stabber')
제비갈매기
jebi-galmaegi
'swallow-gull'
Өзен қарқылдақ
özen qarqıldaq
'river tern'
Sumru
'tern'

Итэлгэн itelgeŋ (also итэлхэн itelkheŋ) refers to a kind of falcon. The name for the Saker Falcon, идлэг idleg, appears to related.

Larus fuscus includes Larus fuscus heuglini. Depending on the taxonomy, many sources list Larus heuglini as a separate species. Names include:
乌黑银鸥
(烏黑銀鷗)
wū-hei yín-ōu
'black silver-gull' (35)
灰林银鸥
(灰林銀鷗)
huī-lín yín ōu
'Huilin's silver-gull' (huilin literally 'grey forest') (3)
灰林鸥
(灰林鷗)
huī-lín ōu
'Huilin's gull' (huilin literally 'grey forest') (alt in 3)

Larus fuscus includes Larus fuscus heuglini. Internet sources propose the following as names for Larus heuglini:
(灰林银鸥)
灰林銀鷗
huī-lín yín ōu
'Huilin's silver-gull' (huilin literally 'grey forest')
(灰林银鸥)
灰林銀鷗
huī-lín yín ōu
'Huilin's silver-gull' (huilin literally 'grey forest')

Larus fuscus includes Larus fuscus heuglini. Some Internet sources propose the following for Larus heuglini:
ホイグリンカモメ
(ホイグリン鴎)
hoigurin kamome
'Heuglin's gull'

Larus fuscus includes Larus fuscus heuglini. As an independent species the following name is given for Larus heuglini:
Chim Mòng biển Heuglin
'Heuglin's sea gull (bird)' (33)

In classing the Asian herring gulls as Larus smithsonianus (with subspecies L. s. vegae and L. s. mongolicus), Howard and Moore run counter to every existing Chinese naming system. Very few sources even have a name for Larus smithsonianus. Here we've adopted Larus argentatus as per traditional naming. More recent sources give names for L. vegae and L. mongolicus. They include:
Larus vegae:
西伯利亚银鸥
(西伯利亞銀鷗)
xībólìyà yín-ōu
'Siberian silver-gull' (2), (4), (35)
织女银鸥
(織女銀鷗)
zhī-nǚ yín-ōu
'weaving girl (=Vega) silver-gull' (3)
织女鸥
(織女鷗)
zhī-nǚ ōu
'weaving girl gull' (alt in 3)
Larus mongolicus:
红脚银鸥
(紅腳銀鷗)
hóng-jiǎo yín-ōu
'red-legged silver-gull' (7)
蒙古银鸥
(蒙古銀鷗)
měnggǔ yín-ōu
'Mongolian silver-gull' (35)

In classing the Asian herring gulls as Larus smithsonianus (with subspecies L. s. vegae and L. s. mongolicus), Howard and Moore run counter to the existing Taiwanese naming system. As of 2014, the Chinese Wild Bird Federation still lists Larus argentatus as the relevant species occuring in Taiwan. For L. vegae, some Internet sites propose the following name:
Larus vegae:
(织女银鸥)
織女銀鷗
zhī-nǚ yín-ōu
'weaving girl (=Vega) silver-gull'

In classing the Asian herring gulls as Larus smithsonianus (with subspecies L. s. vegae and L. s. mongolicus), Howard and Moore run counter to the existing Japanese naming system. Here we use the original naming for L. argentatus. Subspecies are as follows:
Larus argentatus vegae:
セグロカモメ
(背黒鴎)
se-guro kamome
'black-backed gull'

Larus argentatus smithsonianus:
アメリカセグロカモメ
(アメリカ背黒鴎)
amerika se-guro kamome
'American black-backed gull'
H. Hiraizumi's Birding Page: 日本産鳥類目録改訂第7版(日本鳥学会,2012)

In classing the Asian herring gulls as Larus smithsonianus (with subspecies L. s. vegae and L. s. mongolicus), Howard and Moore run counter to existing naming systems. Korean bird lists contain a name for Larus argentatus smithsonianus, which is adopted here, but also have the following names for what Howard and Moore consider subspecies of L. smithsonianus:
L. vegae:
재갈매기
jae-galmaegi
'ash gull'
L. mongolicus:
노랑발갈매기
norang-bal-galmaegi
'yellow-legged gull'

中国鸟类分类与分布名录 主编:郑光美 科学出版社 北京 2005年
A Checklist on the Classification and Distribution of the Birds of China Chief editor: Zheng Guangmei, Science Press, Beijing 2005

中国鸟类野外手册(中文版)约翰・马敬能、卡伦・菲利普斯,合作者:荷芬奇,翻译:卢和芬 湖南教育出版社 长沙 2000年
A Field Guide to the Birds of China (Chinese translation) by John MacKinnon, Karen Phillipps, in collaboration with He Fen-qi, translated by Lu Hefen, Hunan Jiaoyu Chubanshe (Hunan Educational Press) Changsha 2000

世界鸟类分类与分布名录 主编:郑光美 科学出版社 北京 2002年
A Checklist on the Classification and Distribution of the Birds of the World Chief editor: Zheng Guangmei, Science Press, Beijing 2002

世界鸟类名称(拉丁文、汉文、英文对照)第二版 郑作新等 科学出版社 北京 2002年
Birds of the World (Latin, Chinese and English Names) 2nd ed. by Cheng Tso-Hsin et al, Science Press, Beijing 2002

汉蒙名词术语分类词典(自然科学部分) Mongolian (Cyrillic): Хятад Монгол нэр томъёоны зүйл хуваасан толь (байгалийн шинжлэх ухааны бүлэг) (Chinese-Mongolian classified terminological dictionary, natural sciences part) by 《汉蒙名词术语分类词典》编纂委员会 Mongolian (Cyrillic): "Хятад Монгол нэр томъёоны зүйл хуваасан толь" найруулах комисс (Chinese-Mongolian classified terminological dictionary editorial committee), Inner Mongolian People's Press, Hohhot 1990

内蒙古动物志 (第三卷 鸟纲 非雀形目) Fauna Inner Mongolia (Volume 3 Aves Non-Passerines) 主编:旭日干 (Chief Editor: Xurigan), 内蒙古人大学版社 (Inner Mongolian University Press), Hohhot 2013

中国观鸟年报-中国鸟类名录 1.1 (The CBR Checklist of Birds of China v1.1)中国观鸟年报 (China Bird Review), 2010 ()