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Laridae
鸥科
ōu kē

鷗科
ōu kē

カモメ科
kamome ka

갈매기과
galmaegi-gwa

Họ Mòng bể

Цахлайнхан
tsakhlaiŋkhaŋ

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General

Information is from dictionaries and other sources. Pinyin reflects Mandarin pronunciation; for some dialect names, it is no more than a polite fiction. Korean glosses are tentative. Comments and corrections welcome. Hover over Green Lettering Green lettering at this site hides a tool tip with glosses, further explanations, etc. Hover cursor to reveal. to see additional information.

The gulls are known as ōu in Chinese. While it normally refers to the gulls in a narrow sense, it can refer to all members of the Laridae, and is so used by naturalists.

1. Larinae : The gulls proper are known as ōu 'gulls' or 海鸥 hǎi-ōu 'sea gulls'. As a species name, 海鸥 hǎi-ōu refers to Larus canus.

2. Sterninae : Under the generic names, there is no unified name for the terns. The terns in general can be called 燕鸥 yàn-ōu 'swallow-gulls', but Mainland terminology reserves this for the genera Sterna, Thalasseus, etc. The marsh terns, noddies, and others are classed as different kinds of ōu. Judging from these names -- 'swallow-gull', 'giant gull', 'noisy gull', 'floating-gull' and 'dark gull' -- the various terns are simply several different classes of gull.

Sterna 燕鸥 yàn-ōu 'swallow-gull'
Gelochelidon 噪鸥 zào-ōu 'noisy gull'
Hydroprogne 巨鸥 jù-ōu 'giant gull'
Chlidonias 浮鸥 fú-ōu 'floating-gull'
Anous/Gygis 玄鸥 xuán-ōu 'dark-gull'

An older expression for the terns is 海燕 hǎi-yàn, which is, of course, now the standard term for 'petrel'.

3. Rynchopinae : The skimmers are 剪嘴鸥 jiǎn-zuǐ-ōu 'scissor-billed gulls' in Chinese.

Note

With the breakup of the Larus argentatus (Herring Gull) complex, it is difficult to get clear information on the distribution or naming of species. In the species table below, the species occurring in China are tentatively treated as Larus fuscus (L. f. heuglini), L cachinnans, and L. smithsonianus.

Species names

› ABOUT THIS TABLE‹
ANOINAE
SCIENTIFIC & ENGLISH
CHINESE
EAST
SOUTH
NORTH
Anous
Latin
English
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Mongolian
Anous stolidus
link to photolink to photo
Brown noddy
Common noddy
Noddy tern
白顶玄鸥
(白頂玄鷗)
bái-dǐng xuán-ōu
'white-headed dark-gull' (1, 3, 36)
白顶玄燕鸥
(白頂玄燕鷗)
bái-dǐng xuán-yàn-ōu
'white-headed dark swallow-gull' (2, 4, 5)
(玄燕鸥)
玄燕鷗
xuán-yàn-ōu
'dark swallow-gull'
白顶燕鸥
(白頂燕鷗)
bái-dǐng yàn-ōu
'white-headed swallow-gull' (6)
クロアジサシ
(黒鯵刺)
kuro aji-sashi
'black tern' (aji-sashi written 'horse-mackerel stabber')
  Chim Nhàn đầu xám
'grey-headed tern (bird)' (12, 34)
 
 
GYGINAE
SCIENTIFIC & ENGLISH
CHINESE
EAST
SOUTH
NORTH
Gygis
Latin
English
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Mongolian
Gygis alba
link to photo
Atoll Tern
or
White Tern
Common white-tern
White noddy
白玄鸥
(白玄鷗)
bái xuán-ōu
'white dark-gull' (1, 3, 5, 36)
白燕鸥
(白燕鷗)
bái yàn-ōu
'white swallow-gull' (2, 4)
    シロアジサシ
(白鯵刺)
shiro aji-sashi
'white tern' (aji-sashi written 'horse-mackerel stabber')
  Chim Nhàn trắng
'white tern (bird)' (12, 34)
 
 
RYNCHOPINAE
SCIENTIFIC & ENGLISH
CHINESE
EAST
SOUTH
NORTH
Rynchops
Latin
English
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Mongolian
Rynchops albicollis
link to photolink to photo
Indian skimmer 剪嘴鸥
(剪嘴鷗)
jiǎn-zuǐ-ōu
'scissor-billed gull'
or
白领剪嘴鸥
(白領剪嘴鷗)
bái-lǐng jiǎn-zuǐ-ōu
'white-collared scissor-billed gull' (alt in 5)
    シロエリハサミアジサシ
(白襟鋏鯵刺)
shiro-eri hasami aji-sashi
'white-collared scissor tern' (aji-sashi written 'horse-mackerel stabber')
  Chim Xúc cá
'scoop-fish bird' (12)
 
 
LARINAE
SCIENTIFIC & ENGLISH
CHINESE
EAST
SOUTH
NORTH
Rissa
Latin
English
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Mongolian
Rissa tridactyla
Larus tridactylus
link to photolink to photo
Black-legged kittiwake
Kittiwake
三趾鸥
(三趾鷗)
sān-zhǐ ōu
'three-toed gull'
(三趾鸥)
三趾鷗
sān-zhǐ ōu
'three-toed gull'
  ミツユビカモメ
(三つ趾鴎)
mitsu-yubi kamome
'three-toed gull'
세가락갈매기
se-garak-galmaegi
'three-toed gull'
Mòng biển xira
'xira sea gull (bird)' (Wikipedia)
Гурванхуруут захлай
ᠭᠣᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠷᠣᠭᠣᠲᠣ ᠵᠠᠬᠠᠯᠠᠢ
gurveŋ-khuruut zakhlai
'three-toed gull'
Xema
Latin
English
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Mongolian
Xema sabini
Larus sabini
link to photo
Sabine's Gull 叉尾鸥
(叉尾鷗)
chā-wěi ōu
'fork-tailed gull'
(Found only in Spratlies)
    クビワカモメ
(首輪鴎)
kubi-wa kamome
'ring-necked gull'
목테갈매기
mok-te-galmaegi
'throat-banded gull'
   
Chroicocephalus
Latin
English
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Mongolian
Chroicocephalus genei
Larus genei
link to photolink to photo
Slender-billed gull Larus genei:
细嘴鸥
(細嘴鷗)
xì-zuǐ ōu
'slender-billed gull'
    Larus genei:
ハシボソカモメ
(嘴細鴎)
hashi-boso kamome
'slender-billed gull'
기린목갈매기
girin-mok-galmaegi
'qilin-necked gull'
or
긴목갈매기
gin-mok-galmaegi
'long-necked gull'
  Larus genei:
Шөвгөр цахлай
ᠱᠦᠪᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
shövgör tsakhlai
'sharp-pointed gull'
Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus
Larus brunnicephalus
link to photolink to photo
Brown-headed gull
Indian black-headed gull
Larus brunnicephalus:
棕头鸥
(棕頭鷗)
zōng-tóu ōu
'reddishbrown-headed gull'
Larus brunnicephalus:
(棕头鸥)
棕頭鷗
zōng-tóu ōu
'reddishbrown-headed gull'
水鸽子
(水鴿子)
shuǐ gēzi
'water pigeon'
海鸥
(海鷗)
hǎi-ōu
'sea gull'
Larus brunnicephalus:
チャガシラカモメ
(茶頭鴎)
cha-gashira kamome
'brown-headed gull'
  Larus brunnicephalus:
Chim Mòng bể đầu nâu
'brown-headed sea gull (bird)' (12, 13, 34)
Larus brunnicephalus:
Бортолгойт цахлай
ᠪᠣᠷᠣ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠢᠢᠲᠣ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
bor-tolgoit tsakhlai
'dun-headed gull'
Inner M:
Larus brunnicephalus:
Бараан толгойт цахлай
ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠢᠢᠲᠣ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
baraaŋ tolgoit tsakhlai
'dark-headed gull' (32)
Chroicocephalus ridibundis
Larus ridibundis
link to photo
Black-headed Gull
Common Black-headed Gull
Larus ridibundis:
红嘴鸥
(紅嘴鷗)
hóng-zuǐ ōu
'red-billed gull'
Larus ridibundis:
(红嘴鸥)
紅嘴鷗
hóng-zuǐ ōu
'red-billed gull'
笑鸥
(笑鷗)
xiào ōu
'laughing gull'
普通海鸥
(普通海鷗)
pǔtōng hǎi-ōu
'common sea gull'
海鸥
(海鷗)
hǎi-ōu
'sea gull'
赤味鸥
(赤味鷗)
chì-wèi ōu
'red flavour (?) gull'
钓鱼郎
(釣魚郎)
diào yú láng
'fisher fellow' (31)
小康满
(小康滿)
xiǎo kāng-mǎn
'small peace plenty'
水鸽子
(水鴿子)
shuǐ gēzi
'water pigeon'
Larus ridibundis:
ユリカモメ
(百合鴎)
yuri kamome
'lily gull'
Larus ridibundis:
붉은부리갈매기
bulgeun-buri-galmaegi
'red-billed gull'
Larus ridibundis:
Chim Mòng bể
'sea gull (bird)' (12, 34)
Larus ridibundis:
Хүрэнтолгойт цахлай
ᠬᠦᠷᠡᠩ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠢᠢᠲᠣ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
khüren-tolgoit tsakhlai
'darkbrown-headed gull'
Inner M:
Larus ridibundis:
Хушуу улаан цахлай
ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠣ ᠣᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
khushuu ulaaŋ tsakhlai
'red-bill gull' (31, 32)
Saundersilarus
Latin
English
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Mongolian
Saundersilarus saundersi
Larus saundersi
link to photolink to photolink to photo
Saunders's gull
Saunder's gull
Larus saundersi:
黑嘴鸥
(黑嘴鷗)
hēi-zuǐ ōu
'black-billed gull'
Larus saundersi:
(黑嘴鸥)
黑嘴鷗
hēi-zuǐ ōu
'black-billed gull'
乌头
(烏頭)
wū-tóu
'dark head'
白眼睛
(白眼睛)
bái-yǎnjing
'white eye'
Larus saundersi:
ズグロカモメ
(頭黒鴎)
zu-guro kamome
'black-headed gull'
Larus saundersi:
검은머리갈매기
geomeun-meori-galmaegi
'black-headed gull'
Larus saundersi:
Chim Mòng bể mỏ ngắn
'short-billed sea gull (bird)' (12, 13)
Inner M:
Хушуу хар цахлай
ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠣ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
khushuu khar tsakhlai
'black-bill gull'
Hycrocoloeus
Latin
English
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Mongolian
Hydrocoloeus minutus
Larus minutus
link to photolink to photo
Little gull Larus minutus:
小鸥
(小鷗)
xiǎo-ōu
'small gull'
Larus minutus:
(小鸥)
小鷗
xiǎo-ōu
'small gull'
  Larus minutus:
ヒメカモメ
(姫鴎)
hime kamome
'princess gull'
    Larus minutus:
Хурган цахлай
ᠬᠣᠷᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
khurgaŋ tsakhlai
'lamb gull'
Inner M:
Larus minutus:
Хурган цахлай
ᠬᠣᠷᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
khurgaŋ tsakhlai
'lamb gull' (32)
Rhodostethia
Latin
English
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Mongolian
Rhodostethia rosea
Larus roseus
link to photolink to photo
Ross's gull
Wedge-tailed gull
楔尾鸥
(楔尾鷗)
xiē-wěi ōu
'wedge-tailed gull'
  罗氏鸥
(羅氏鷗)
luó-shì ōu
'Mr Luo's gull'
ヒメクビワカモメ
(姫首輪鴎)
hime kubi-wa kamome
'princess neck-ringed gull'
쇠목테갈매기
soe-mok-te-galmaegi
'small throat-banded gull'
Mòng biển Ross
'Ross's sea gull (bird)' (Wikipedia)
Хүзүүвчит ягаандай
ᠬᠦᠵᠦᠭᠦᠪᠴᠢᠲᠦ ᠶᠠᠭᠠᠨᠳᠠᠢ
khüzüüvchit yagaandai
'collared pinkbird'
Ichthyaetus
Latin
English
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Mongolian
Ichthyaetus relictus
Larus relictus
link to photolink to photo
Relict gull
Relic gull
Larus relictus:
遗鸥
(遺鷗)
yí-ōu
'relic gull'
    Larus relictus:
ゴビズキンカモメ
(ゴビ頭巾鴎)
gobi zukin kamome
'Gobi hooded gull'
Larus relictus:
적호갈매기
jeokho-galmaegi
'jeokho gull'
or
고대갈매기
godae-galmaegi
'ancient gull'
Larus relictus:
Chim Mòng bể Relic
'relic sea gull (bird)' (12, 13)
Chim Mòng bể sót
'missing sea gull (bird)' (34)
Larus relictus:
Реликт цахлай
ᠷᠧᠯᠢᠺᠲ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
relikt tsakhlai
'relikt gull'
Inner M:
Larus relictus:
Ховор цахлай
ᠬᠣᠪᠣᠷ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
khovor tsakhlai
'rare gull' (32)
Ichthyaetus ichthyaetus
Larus ichthyaetus
link to photolink to photolink to photo
Pallas's Gull
or
Great Black-headed Gull
Larus ichthyaetus:
渔鸥
(漁鷗)
yú-ōu
'fishing gull'
Larus ichthyaetus:
(渔鸥)
漁鷗
yú-ōu
'fishing gull'
  Larus ichthyaetus:
オオズグロカモメ
(大頭黒鴎)
ō zu-guro kamome
'large black-headed gull'
Larus ichthyaetus:
큰검은머리갈매기
keun-geomeun-meori-galmaegi
'large black-headed gull'
Larus ichthyaetus:
Chim Mòng bể đầu đen lớn
'large black-headed sea gull (bird)' (12)
Larus ichthyaetus:
Итэлгэн цахлай
ᠢᠳᠥᠯᠭᠡᠨ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
itelgeŋ tsakhlai
'falcon gull'
Inner M:
Larus ichthyaetus:
Итэлгэн цахлай
ᠢᠳᠣᠯᠭᠡᠨ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
itelgeŋ tsakhlai
'falcon gull' (32)
Larus
Latin
English
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Mongolian
Larus crassirostris
link to photolink to photolink to photo
Black-tailed gull
Japanese gull
黑尾鸥
(黑尾鷗)
hēi-wěi ōu
'black-tailed gull'
(黑尾鸥)
黑尾鷗
hēi-wěi ōu
'black-tailed gull'
海猫
(海貓)
hǎi-māo
'sea cat'
乌尾尖鸥
(烏尾尖鷗)
wū-wěi jiān ōu
'dark-tailed sharp gull'
中康满
(中康滿)
zhōng kāng-mǎn
'medium peace plenty'
ウミネコ
(海猫)
umi-neko
'sea cat'
괭이갈매기
gwaengi-galmaegi
'cat gull'
Chim Mòng bể đuôi đen
'black-tailed sea gull (bird)' (12, 13)
Харсүүлт цахлай
ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯᠲᠦ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
khar-süült tsakhlai
'black-tailed gull'
Inner M:
Сүүл хар цахлай
ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
süül khar tsakhlai
'tail-black gull' (32)
Larus canus
link to photolink to photolink to photo
Mew gull
Common gull
海鸥
(海鷗)
hǎi ōu
'sea gull'
(海鸥)
海鷗
hǎi ōu
'sea gull'
白头鸥
(白頭鷗)
bái-tóu ōu
'white-headed gull'
カモメ
()
kamome
'gull'
갈매기
galmaegi
'gull'
Chim Mòng bể đầu trắng
'white-headed sea gull (bird)' (12, 34)
Үүлэн цахлай
ᠡᠭᠦᠯᠡᠨ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
üüleŋ tsakhlai
'cloud gull'
Inner M:
Цахлай
ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
tsakhlai
'gull' (31, 32)
Larus fuscus
link to photo
Lesser black-backed gull 小黑背银鸥
(小黑背銀鷗)
xiǎo hēi-bèi yín-ōu
'silver-gull' (2, 5)
›Taxonomy‹
(小黑背鸥)
小黑背鷗
xiǎo hēi-bèi yín-ōu
'silver-gull'
›Taxonomy‹
  ニシセグロカモメ
(西背黒鴎)
nishi se-guro kamome
'western black-backed gull'
›Taxonomy‹
줄무늬노랑발갈매기
jul-munui-norang-bal-galmaegi
'stripe-patterned yellow-legged gull'
Chim Mòng bể chân vàng
'yellow-legged sea gull (bird)'
(13)
›Taxonomy‹
Үхэр цахлай
ᠦᠬᠡᠷ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
ükher tsakhlai
'ox gull'
›Taxonomy‹
Latin
English
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Mongolian
Larus cachinnans
link to photo
Caspian Gull
Yellow-legged Gull
黄脚银鸥
(黃腳銀鷗)
huáng-jiǎo yín-ōu
'yellow-footed silver-gull' (3, 36)
黄腿银鸥
(黃腿銀鷗)
huáng-tuǐ yín ōu
'yellow-legged silver-gull' (2)
黄腿鸥
(黃腿鷗)
huáng-tuǐ ōu
'yellow-legged gull' (4)
(里海银鸥)
裏海銀鷗
lǐ-hǎi yín-ōu
'Caspian Sea silver-gull'

黄脚鸥
(黃腳鷗)
huáng-jiǎo ōu
'yellow-footed gull' (alt in 3)
キアシセグロカモメ
(黄足背黒鴎)
ki-ashi se-guro kamome
'yellow-legged black-backed gull' (Internet)
L. cachinnans:
카스피해갈매기
kaseupi-hae-galmaegi
'Caspian sea gull (bird)'
Chim Mòng bể chân vàng
'yellow-legged sea gull (bird)' (34) (Conflicts with other lists' use for Larus fuscus)
Mòng biển Caspi
'Caspian sea gull (bird)' (Wikipedia)
 
Larus smithsonianus American Herring Gull Larus argentatus:
银鸥
(銀鷗)
yín-ōu
'silver-gull'
›Taxonomy‹
Larus argentatus:
(银鸥)
銀鷗
yín-ōu
'silver-gull'
›Taxonomy‹
Taiwan formerly:
(黑脊鸥)
黑脊鷗
hēi-jǐ ōu
'black-spined gull'
红脚鲱鸥
(紅腳鯡鷗)
hóng-jiǎo fēi ōu
'red-legged herring gull'
叼嘴郎
(叼嘴郎)
diāo zuǐ láng
'hold-in-mouth fellow'
叼鱼郎
(叼魚郎)
diāo yú láng
'hold-fish fellow'
大康满
(大康滿)
dà kāng-mǎn
'large peace plenty'
鱼鹰子
(魚鷹子)
yú-yīngzi
'fish hawk' (but see osprey and cormorant)
大海鸥
(大海鷗)
dà hǎi-ōu
'large sea gull'
大水鸽子
(大水鴿子)
dà shuǐ gēzi
'large water pigeon'
Larus argentatus:
セグロカモメ
(背黒鴎)
se-guro kamome
'black-backed gull'
›Taxonomy‹
Larus argentatus smithsonianus:
옅은재갈매기
yeoteun-jae-galmaegi
'pale ash gull'
›Taxonomy‹
Larus vegae:
Chim Mòng bể Vega
'Vega sea gull (bird)' (13)
Larus argentatus:
Мөнгөлөг цахлай
ᠮᠦᠩᠭᠦᠯᠢᠭ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
möŋglög tsakhlai
'silverish-gull'
Inner M:
Larus argentatus:
Мөнгөн цахлай
ᠮᠦᠩᠭᠦᠨ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
möŋgöŋ tsakhlai
'silver gull' (31, 32)
Larus schistisagus
link to photolink to photolink to photo
Slaty-backed gull 灰背鸥
(灰背鷗)
huī-bèi ōu
'grey-backed gull'
(灰背鸥)
灰背鷗
huī-bèi ōu
'grey-backed gull'
Taiwan formerly:
(大黑脊鸥)
大黑脊鷗
dà hēi-jǐ ōu
'large black-spined gull'
オオセグロカモメ
(大背黒鴎)
ō se-guro kamome
'large black-backed gull'
큰재갈매기
keun-jae-galmaegi
'large ash gull'
Mòng biển lưng đá
'stone-backed sea gull (bird)' (Wikipedia)
Inner M:
Номхон далайн цахлай
ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
nomkhoŋ dalaiŋ tsakhlai
'Pacific ocean gull'
Larus glaucescens
link to photolink to photo
Glaucous-winged gull 灰翅鸥
(灰翅鷗)
huī-chì ōu
'grey-winged gull'
    ワシカモメ
(鷲鴎)
washi kamome
'eagle gull'
수리갈매기
suri-galmaegi
'eagle gull'
Mòng biển cánh xanh xám
'green/bluiish-grey winged sea gull (bird)' (Wikipedia)
 
Larus hyperboreus
link to photolink to photolink to photo
Glaucous gull 北极鸥
(北極鷗)
běi jí ōu
'north pole gull'
(北极鸥)
北極鷗
běi jí ōu
'north pole gull'
  シロカモメ
(白鴎)
shiro-kamome
'white gull'
흰갈매기
huin-galmaegi
'white gull'
Mòng biển xanh xám
'green/bluish-grey sea gull (bird)' (Wikipedia)
Мөсний цахлай
ᠮᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
mösni tsakhlai
'ice gull'
 
STERNINAE
SCIENTIFIC & ENGLISH
CHINESE
EAST
SOUTH
NORTH
Onychoprion
Latin
English
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Mongolian
Onychoprion aleuticus
Sterna aleutica
link to photo
Aleutian Tern 白腰燕鸥
(白腰燕鷗)
bái-yāo yàn-ōu
'white-rumped swallow-gull'
(白腰燕鸥)
白腰燕鷗
bái-yāo yàn-ōu
'white-rumped swallow-gull'
  コシジロアジサシ
(腰白鯵刺)
koshi-jiro aji-sashi
'white-rumped tern' (aji-sashi written 'horse-mackerel stabber')
  Sterna aleutica:
Chim Nhàn bụng đen
'black-bellied tern (bird)' (13)
›Taxonomy‹
 
Onychoprion fuscatus
Sterna fuscata
link to photo
Sooty Tern Sterna fuscata:
乌燕鸥
(烏燕鷗)
wū yàn-ōu
'dark swallow-gull'
Sterna fuscata:
(乌领燕鸥)
烏領燕鷗
wū-lǐng yàn-ōu
'dark-collared swallow-gull'
  Sterna fuscata:
セグロアジサシ
(背黒鯵刺)
se-guro aji-sashi
'black-backed tern' (aji-sashi written 'horse-mackerel stabber')
Sterna fuscata:
검은등제비갈매기
geomeun-deung-jebi-galmaegi
black-backed swallow-gull'
Sterna fuscata (12, 13):
Chim Nhàn nâu
'brown tern (bird)' (12, 13, 34)
 
Onychoprion anaethetus
Onychoprion anethetus
Sterna anaethetus
Bridled tern
Brown-winged Tern
Sterna anaethetus:
褐翅燕鸥
(褐翅燕鷗)
hè-chì yàn-ōu
'brown-winged swallow-gull'
Sterna anaethetus:
(白眉燕鸥)
白眉燕鷗
bái-méi yàn-ōu
'white-eyebrowed swallow-gull'
  Sterna anaethetus:
マミジロアジサシ
(眉白鯵刺)
mami-jiro aji-sashi
'white-eyebrowed tern' (aji-sashi written 'horse-mackerel stabber')
Sterna anaethetus:
에위니아제비갈매기
ewinia-jebi-galmaegi
'ewinia swallow-gull'
Sterna anaethetus:
Chim Nhàn lưng đen
'black-backed tern (bird)' (12, 13)
 
Sternula
Latin
English
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Mongolian
Sternula albifrons
Sterna albifrons
link to photolink to photo
Little Tern Sterna albifrons:
白额燕鸥
(白額燕鷗)
bái-é yàn-ōu
'white-foreheaded swallow-gull'
Sterna albifrons:
(小燕鸥)
小燕鷗
xiǎo yàn-ōu
'small swallow-gull'
  Sterna albifrons:
コアジサシ
(小鯵刺)
ko aji-sashi
'small tern' (aji-sashi written 'horse-mackerel stabber')
쇠제비갈매기
soe-jebi-galmaegi
'small swallow-gull'
Sterna albifrons (12, 13):
Chim Nhàn nhỏ
'small tern (bird)' (12, 13, 34)
Sterna albifrons:
Хурган хараалай
ᠬᠣᠷᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠢ
khurgaŋ kharaalai
'lamb tern'
Inner M:
Sterna albifrons:
Цагаан магнайт хараацай цахлай
ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠮᠠᠩᠨᠠᠢᠢᠳᠣ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠴᠠᠢ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
tsagaaŋ magnait kharaatsai tsakhlai
'white-forehead swallow gull' (32)
Gelochelidon
Latin
English
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Mongolian
Gelochelidon nilotica
Sterna nilotica
link to photolink to photo
Gull-billed Tern 鸥嘴噪鸥
(鷗嘴噪鷗)
ōu-zuǐ zào-ōu
'gull-billed noisy gull'
(鸥嘴燕鸥)
鷗嘴燕鷗
ōu-zuǐ yàn-ōu
'gull-billed swallow-gull'
  ハシブトアジサシ
(嘴太鯵刺)
hashi-buto aji-sashi
'thick-billed tern' (aji-sashi written 'horse-mackerel stabber')
큰부리제비갈매기
keun-buri-jebi-galmaegi
'large-billed swallow-gull'
Chim Nhàn chân đen
'black-legged tern' (12, 13, 34)
Бахим амуулай
ᠪᠠᠬᠢᠮ ᠠᠮᠣᠯᠠᠢ

bakhim amuulai
'short-stout amuulai'
Inner M:
Бахим хараалай
ᠪᠠᠬᠢᠮ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠢ
bakhim kharaalai
'short-stout tern' (32)
Hydroprogne
Latin
English
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Mongolian
Hydroprogne caspia
Sterna caspia
Hydroprogne tschegrava
link to photolink to photo
Caspian Tern 红嘴巨鸥
(紅嘴巨鷗)
hóng-zuǐ jù-ōu
'red-billed giant gull'
or
黑海巨鸥
(黑海巨鷗)
hēi-hǎi jù-ōu
'Black Sea giant gull' (alt in 5)
(里海燕鸥)
裏海燕鷗
lǐ hǎi yàn-ōu
'inland sea (=Caspian Sea) swallow-gull'
  オニアジサシ
(鬼鯵刺)
oni aji-sashi
'ogre tern' (aji-sashi written 'horse-mackerel stabber')
붉은부리큰제비갈매기
bulgeun-buri-keun-jebi-galmaegi
'red-billed large swallow-gull'
Sterna caspia (13):
Chim Nhàn Caxpia
'Caspian tern' (12, 13, 34)
Морин шунгуулай
ᠮᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠢ
moriŋ shuŋguulai
'horse divinggull'
Inner M:
Морин хараалай
ᠮᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠢ
moriŋ kharaalai
'horse tern' (32)
Chlidonias
Latin
English
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Mongolian
Chlidonias hybrida
Chlidonias hybridus
Sterna hybrida
link to photolink to photo
Whiskered Tern 须浮鸥
(鬚浮鷗)
xū fú-ōu
'whiskered floating-gull'
(黑腹燕鸥)
黑腹燕鷗
hēi-fù yàn-ōu
'black-bellied swallow-gull'
  クロハラアジサシ
(黒腹鯵刺)
kuro-hara aji-sashi
'black-bellied tern' (aji-sashi written 'horse-mackerel stabber')
구레나룻제비갈매기
gurenarut-jebi-galmaegi
'whiskered swallow-gull'
Chim Nhàn đen
'black tern (bird)' (12, 13)
Цагааншанаа хараалзай
ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠠ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠵᠠᠢ
tsagaaŋ-shanaa kharaalzai
'white-cheek tern (variant form)'
Inner M:
Шанаа цагаан хараалай
ᠰᠢᠨᠠ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
shanaa tsagaaŋ kharaalai
'white-cheek tern' (32)
Chlidonias leucopterus
Sterna leucoptera
link to photolink to photo
White-winged Tern
White-winged Black Tern
白翅浮鸥
(白翅浮鷗)
bái-chì fú-ōu
'white-winged floating-gull'
(白翅黑燕鸥)
白翅黑燕鷗
bái-chì hēi yàn-ōu
'white-winged black swallow-gull'
白翅黑海燕
(白翅黑海燕)
bái-chì hēi hǎi-yàn
'white-winged black sea-swallow' (31)
ハジロクロハラアジサシ
(羽白黒腹鯵刺)
ha-jiro kuro-hara aji-sashi
'white-winged black-bellied tern' (aji-sashi written 'horse-mackerel stabber')
흰죽지갈매기
huin-jukji-galmaegi
'white wingjoint gull'
Chim Nhàn xám
'grey tern (bird)' (12, 13)
Буурал хараалзай
ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠯ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠵᠠᠢ
buural kharaalzai
'greyish tern (variant form)'
Inner M:
Цагаан далавчит тэнүүл цахлай
ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠪᠴᠢᠲᠣ ᠲᠡᠨᠦᠭᠦᠯ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
tsagaaŋ dalavchit tenüül tsakhlai
'white-winged floating gull' (31, 32)
Chlidonias niger
Chlidonias nigra
Sterna nigra
link to photo
Black Tern 黑浮鸥
(黑浮鷗)
hēi fú-ōu
'black floating-gull'
(黑浮鸥)
黑浮鷗
hēi fú-ōu
'black floating-gull'
  ハシグロクロハラアジサシ
(嘴黒黒腹鯵刺)
hashi-guro kuro-hara aji-sashi
'black-billed black-bellied tern' (aji-sashi written 'horse-mackerel stabber')
검은제비갈매기
geomeun-jebi-galmaegi
'black swallow-gull'
  Хилэн хараалзай
ᠬᠢᠯᠡᠩ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠵᠠᠢ
khileŋ kharaalzai
'velvet tern (variant form)'
Inner M:
Хилэн хараалай
ᠬᠢᠯᠡᠩ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠢ
khileŋ kharaalai
'velvet tern' (32)
Sterna
Latin
English
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Mongolian
Sterna aurantia
link to photo
River tern
Indian river Tern
黄嘴河燕鸥
(黃嘴河燕鷗)
huáng-zuǐ hé yàn-ōu
'yellow-billed river swallow-gull'
    カワアジサシ
(河鯵刺)
kawa aji-sashi
'river tern' (aji-sashi written 'horse-mackerel stabber')
     
Sterna dougalli
link to photolink to photo
Roseate Tern 粉红燕鸥
(粉紅燕鷗)
fěn-hóng yàn-ōu
'pink swallow-gull'
(红燕鸥)
紅燕鷗
hóng yàn-ōu
'red swallow-gull'
  ベニアジサシ
(紅鯵刺)
beni aji-sashi
'red tern' (aji-sashi written 'horse-mackerel stabber')
  Chim Nhàn hồng
'rosy tern (bird)' (12, 13, 34)
 
Sterna sumatrana
link to photo
Black-naped Tern 黑枕燕鸥
(黑枕燕鷗)
hēi-zhěn yàn-ōu
'black-naped swallow-gull'
(苍燕鸥)
蒼燕鷗
cāng yàn-ōu
'blue swallow-gull'
  エリグロアジサシ
(襟黒鯵刺)
eri-guro aji-sashi
'black-collared tern' (aji-sashi written 'horse-mackerel stabber')
  Chim Nhàn Xumatra
'Sumatran tern (bird)' (12, 13, 34)
 
Sterna hirundo
link to photolink to photo
Common Tern 普通燕鸥
(普通燕鷗)
pǔtōng yàn-ōu
'common swallow-gull'
(燕鸥)
燕鷗
yàn-ōu
'swallow-gull'
长翅海燕
(長翅海燕)
cháng-chì hǎi-yàn
'long-winged sea swallow' (31)
アジサシ
(鯵刺)
aji-sashi
'tern' (aji-sashi written 'horse-mackerel stabber')
제비갈매기
jebi-galmaegi
'swallow-gull'
Chim Nhàn
'tern (bird)' (12, 13)
Эгэл хараалай
ᠡᠭᠡᠯ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠢ
egel kharaalai
'common tern'
Inner M:
Хараацай цахлай
ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠴᠠᠢ ᠴᠠᠬᠣᠯᠠᠢ
kharaatsai tsakhlai
'swallow gull' (32)
Sterna acuticauda
Sterna melanogaster
link to photo
Black-bellied Tern 黑腹燕鸥
(黑腹燕鷗)
hēi-fù yàn-ōu
'black-bellied swallow-gull'
    インドアジサシ
(インド鯵刺)
indo aji-sashi
'Indian tern' (aji-sashi written 'horse-mackerel stabber')
  Chim Nhàn bụng đen
'black-bellied tern (bird)' (12, 13, 34)
 
Thalasseus
Latin
English
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Mongolian
Thalasseus bengalensis
Sterna bengalensis
link to photolink to photo
Lesser crested tern
Lesser crested-tern
Little crested tern
Sterna bengalensis:
小凤头燕鸥)
(小鳳頭燕鷗)
xiǎo fèng-tóu yàn-ōu
'little phoenix-headed swallow-gull'
    ベンガルアジサシ
(ベンガル鯵刺)
bengaru aji-sashi
'Bengalese tern' (aji-sashi written 'horse-mackerel stabber')
     
Thalasseus bernsteini
Sterna bernsteini
Thalasseus zimmermanni
link to photo
Chinese crested tern
Chinese crested-tern
Chinese lesser crested tern
黑嘴端凤头燕鸥
(黑嘴端鳳頭燕鷗)
hēi-zuǐ duān fèng-tóu yàn-ōu
'black-billed level phoenix-headed swallow-gull'
or
黑嘴端燕鸥
(黑嘴端燕鷗)
hēi-zuǐ duān yàn-ōu
'black-billed level swallow-gull' (alt in 5)

 

 

  ヒガシシナアジサシ
(東シナ鯵刺)
higashi shina aji-sashi
'East China tern' (aji-sashi written 'horse-mackerel stabber')
     
Thalasseus bergii
Sterna bergii
link to photolink to photo
Greater crested tern
Great Crested-tern
Crested tern
Large crested tern
大凤头燕鸥
(大鳳頭燕鷗)
dà fèng-tóu yàn-ōu
'large phoenix-headed swallow-gull'
(凤头燕鸥)
鳳頭燕鷗
fèng-tóu yàn-ōu
'phoenix-headed swallow-gull'
  オオアジサシ
(大鯵刺)
ō aji-sashi
'large tern' (aji-sashi written 'horse-mackerel stabber')
  Chim Nhàn mào
'crested tern' (12)
 

Итэлгэн itelgeŋ (also итэлхэн itelkheŋ) refers to a kind of falcon. The name for the Saker Falcon, идлэг idleg, appears to related.

Larus fuscus includes Larus fuscus heuglini. Depending on the taxonomy, many sources list Larus heuglini as a separate species. Names include:
乌黑银鸥
(烏黑銀鷗)
wū-hei yín-ōu
'black silver-gull' (35)
灰林银鸥
(灰林銀鷗)
huī-lín yín ōu
'Huilin's silver-gull' (huilin literally 'grey forest') (3)
灰林鸥
(灰林鷗)
huī-lín ōu
'Huilin's gull' (huilin literally 'grey forest') (alt in 3)

Larus fuscus includes Larus fuscus heuglini. Internet sources propose the following as names for Larus heuglini:
(灰林银鸥)
灰林銀鷗
huī-lín yín ōu
'Huilin's silver-gull' (huilin literally 'grey forest')
(灰林银鸥)
灰林銀鷗
huī-lín yín ōu
'Huilin's silver-gull' (huilin literally 'grey forest')

Larus fuscus includes Larus fuscus heuglini. Some Internet sources propose the following for Larus heuglini:
ホイグリンカモメ
(ホイグリン鴎)
hoigurin kamome
'Heuglin's gull'

Larus fuscus includes Larus fuscus heuglini. As an independent species the following name is given for Larus heuglini:
Chim Mòng biển Heuglin
'Heuglin's sea gull (bird)' (33)

In classing the Asian herring gulls as Larus smithsonianus (with subspecies L. s. vegae and L. s. mongolicus), Howard and Moore run counter to every existing Chinese naming system. Very few sources even have a name for Larus smithsonianus. Here we've adopted Larus argentatus as per traditional naming. More recent sources give names for L. vegae and L. mongolicus. They include:
Larus vegae:
西伯利亚银鸥
(西伯利亞銀鷗)
xībólìyà yín-ōu
'Siberian silver-gull' (2), (4), (35)
织女银鸥
(織女銀鷗)
zhī-nǚ yín-ōu
'weaving girl (=Vega) silver-gull' (3)
织女鸥
(織女鷗)
zhī-nǚ ōu
'weaving girl gull' (alt in 3)
Larus mongolicus:
红脚银鸥
(紅腳銀鷗)
hóng-jiǎo yín-ōu
'red-legged silver-gull' (7)
蒙古银鸥
(蒙古銀鷗)
měnggǔ yín-ōu
'Mongolian silver-gull' (35)

In classing the Asian herring gulls as Larus smithsonianus (with subspecies L. s. vegae and L. s. mongolicus), Howard and Moore run counter to the existing Taiwanese naming system. As of 2014, the Chinese Wild Bird Federation still lists Larus argentatus as the relevant species occuring in Taiwan. For L. vegae, some Internet sites propose the following name:
Larus vegae:
(织女银鸥)
織女銀鷗
zhī-nǚ yín-ōu
'weaving girl (=Vega) silver-gull'

In classing the Asian herring gulls as Larus smithsonianus (with subspecies L. s. vegae and L. s. mongolicus), Howard and Moore run counter to the existing Japanese naming system. Here we use the original naming for L. argentatus. Subspecies are as follows:
Larus argentatus vegae:
セグロカモメ
(背黒鴎)
se-guro kamome
'black-backed gull'

Larus argentatus smithsonianus:
アメリカセグロカモメ
(アメリカ背黒鴎)
amerika se-guro kamome
'American black-backed gull'
H. Hiraizumi's Birding Page: 日本産鳥類目録改訂第7版(日本鳥学会,2012)

In classing the Asian herring gulls as Larus smithsonianus (with subspecies L. s. vegae and L. s. mongolicus), Howard and Moore run counter to existing naming systems. Korean bird lists contain a name for Larus argentatus smithsonianus, which is adopted here, but also have the following names for what Howard and Moore consider subspecies of L. smithsonianus:
L. vegae:
재갈매기
jae-galmaegi
'ash gull'
L. mongolicus:
노랑발갈매기
norang-bal-galmaegi
'yellow-legged gull'

中国鸟类种和亚种分类名录大全(修订版) 郑作新 著 科学出版社 北京 2000年
A Complete Checklist of Species and Subspecies of the Chinese Birds (Revised Edition) by Cheng Tso-Hsin, Science Press, Beijing 2000

中国鸟类分类与分布名录 主编:郑光美 科学出版社 北京 2005年
A Checklist on the Classification and Distribution of the Birds of China Chief editor: Zheng Guangmei, Science Press, Beijing 2005

中国鸟类野外手册(中文版)约翰・马敬能、卡伦・菲利普斯,合作者:荷芬奇,翻译:卢和芬 湖南教育出版社 长沙 2000年
A Field Guide to the Birds of China (Chinese translation) by John MacKinnon, Karen Phillipps, in collaboration with He Fen-qi, translated by Lu Hefen, Hunan Jiaoyu Chubanshe (Hunan Educational Press) Changsha 2000

世界鸟类分类与分布名录 主编:郑光美 科学出版社 北京 2002年
A Checklist on the Classification and Distribution of the Birds of the World Chief editor: Zheng Guangmei, Science Press, Beijing 2002

世界鸟类名称(拉丁文、汉文、英文对照)第二版 郑作新等 科学出版社 北京 2002年
Birds of the World (Latin, Chinese and English Names) 2nd ed. by Cheng Tso-Hsin et al, Science Press, Beijing 2002

中国鸟类分布名录 第二版 郑作新 科学出版社 北京 1976年
(Checklist of the Classification of Birds of China 2nd edition by Cheng Tso-Hsin, Science Press, Beijing 1976)

香港及華南鳥類(第六版)(翻譯成中文及重新修訂) 尹璉、費嘉倫、林超英 香港性徵特區政府新聞處政府印務局 1994年
Birds of Hong Kong and South China (6th edition, translated into Chinese and newly revised) by Clive Viney, Karen Phillipps, Lin Chaoying, Hong Kong Govt. Press 1994

Danh Lục Chim Việt Nam (In lần thứ hai) (Checklist of the Birds of Vietnam) Võ Quý, Nguyễn Cử, Nhà Xuất Bản Nông Nghiệp, Hà Nội 1999

Chim Việt Nam Nguyễn Cử, Lê Trọng Trải, Karen Phillipps; Nhà Xuất Bản Lao Động - Xã Hội, 2000

汉蒙名词术语分类词典(自然科学部分) Mongolian (Cyrillic): Хятад Монгол нэр томъёоны зүйл хуваасан толь (байгалийн шинжлэх ухааны бүлэг) (Chinese-Mongolian classified terminological dictionary, natural sciences part) by 《汉蒙名词术语分类词典》编纂委员会 Mongolian (Cyrillic): "Хятад Монгол нэр томъёоны зүйл хуваасан толь" найруулах комисс (Chinese-Mongolian classified terminological dictionary editorial committee), Inner Mongolian People's Press, Hohhot 1990

内蒙古动物志 (第三卷 鸟纲 非雀形目) Fauna Inner Mongolia (Volume 3 Aves Non-Passerines) 主编:旭日干 (Chief Editor: Xurigan), 内蒙古人大学版社 (Inner Mongolian University Press), Hohhot 2013

Danh Lục Các Loài Chim ở Việt Nam (Latinh, Việt, Pháp, Hán) Trần Văn Chánh 2008-2009

中国观鸟年报-中国鸟类名录 1.1 (The CBR Checklist of Birds of China v1.1)中国观鸟年报 (China Bird Review), 2010 ()