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Falconidae
Шонхорынхон
shoŋkhoriŋkhoŋ

隼科
sǔn kē

隼科
zhǔn kē

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hayabusa ka

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mae-gwa

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General

This list is 'in beta'. Information is from dictionaries and other sources. Kazakh, Turkish, and Korean glosses are tentative. Comments and corrections welcome. Hover over Green Lettering Green lettering at this site hides a tool tip with glosses, further explanations, etc. Hover cursor to reveal. to see additional information.

Мongolian has two general names for the falcons. The official names use Шонхор shoŋkhor. At an earlier stage in the language Шонхор shoŋkhor seems to have been applied to accipitrids and falconids in general, but in modern Mongolian it is used for the falcons. The name Шонхор shoŋkhor is quite similar to the Kazakh name of the Gyrfalcon, Сұңқар suñqar. In Inner Mongolia, Шонхор shoŋkhor is ornithologically used for the Common Kestrel.

The second name for the falcons is Начин nachiŋ. This also appears to have originally referred to some kind of raptor, but not necessarily a falcon. The two names are found together in Начин шонхор nachiŋ shoŋkhor, literally 'falcon falcon', which is now officially used for the Common Kestrel, and in the Inner Mongolian name for the Saker Falcon, which is Шонхор начин shoŋkhor nachiŋ 'falcon falcon'. In Inner Mongolian ornithological usage, Начин nachiŋ is used for the Peregrine Falcon.

For convenience, Шонхор shoŋkhor is glossed as 'falcon₁' and Начин nachiŋ as 'falcon₂'. The corresponding Buryat names are Шонхор shonkhor and Нашан nashan.

Mongolian also has the word Хайчин khaichiŋ for the falcons, from Chinese 海青 hǎiqīng.

Some of the more specific names of falcons are difficult to elucidate, although tantalising clues emerge from a comparison with Kazakh. There have clearly been borrowings between Mongolian and other Central Asian languages. Historically the direction is mainly (but not solely) from Turkic languages into Mongolian.

The name Турамтай turamtai, also found in the form Торомтой toromtoi, appears to have referred to a kind of hawk in Mongolian. The word is related to the Kazakh name for the Merlin, Тұрымтай turımtay, which was probably a borrowing from Mongolian into the Turkic languages. It is officially used for the Red-footed Falcon and Amur Falcon in Mongolia and for the Amur Falcon and the Merlin in Inner Mongolia.

The name Идлэг шонхор idleg shoŋkhor is used for the Saker Falcon. There are a number of variants on this name: Итлэг itleg, Идлэг начин idleg nachiŋ, and Идлэг шувуу idleg shuvuu idleg bird'. The name Идлэг idleg, in Classical form idelgü, referred to a kind of raptor, identity unclear. The resemblance to the Kazakh name for the Saker Falcon, Ителгі ïtelgi, is obvious.

The old ornithological name for the Gyr Falcon is Жадан шонхор jadaŋ shoŋkhor 'lance falcon', which has a discernible (although hard to fathom) meaning. What is interesting is the parallel with the Chinese name 矛隼 máo-sǔn, which also means 'lance falcon'. The similarity suggests a loan translation (calque).

The term Шууман шонхор shuumaŋ shoŋkhor 'shuuman falcon' refers to the Hobby. The word Шууман shuumaŋ is found only in this name. The Hobby was previously called the Хараацайч начин kharaatsaich nachiŋ 'swallow-eating falcon' or possibly just 'swallow falcon' in Inner Mongolian sources, and is obviously related to the Chinese name (燕隼 yànsǔn 'swallow falcon').

The Inner Mongolian ornithological naming uses Хүйхнэг khüikhneg for the Hobby and several other species. This is an old name found in the Imperial Pentaglot Manchu Mirror (37) of 1805.

One baffling name is:

Хайргууна шонхор khairguun shoŋkhor. The word хайргууна khairguun is not found in dictionaries. However, both Хайргана шонхор khairgan shoŋkhor and хайргана khairgan are, with хайргана khairgan, given by at least one source as an alternative name for the seagull.

Species names

› ABOUT THIS TABLE‹
FALCONINAE
SCIENTIFIC & WESTERN
MONGOLIAN
EAST ASIAN
TURKIC
FALCONINI
Falco
Latin
English/Russian
Mongolian
Inner M
Other M
Chinese
Japanese
Korean
Kazakh
Turkish
Falco naumanni
link to photolink to photo
Lesser kestrel

Степная пустельга
Зээрд шонхор
ᠵᠡᠬᠡᠷᠳ ᠱᠣᠩᠬᠣᠷ
zeerd shoŋkhor
'chestnut-coloured falcon₁'
Зээрд шонхор
ᠵᠡᠬᠡᠷᠳ ᠱᠣᠩᠬᠣᠷ
zeerd shoŋkhor
'chestnut-coloured falcon₁' (32)
Inner M formerly:
Шар хумст шонхор
ᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠢᠮᠣᠰᠣᠲᠣ ᠱᠣᠩᠬᠣᠷ
shar khumst shoŋkhor
'yellow-nailed falcon₁' (31)
黄爪隼
(黄爪隼)
huáng-zhuǎ sǔn
'yellow-clawed falcon'
ヒメチョウゲンボウ
(姫長元坊)
hime chōgenbō
'princess kestrel'
  Дала күйкентайы
dala küykentayı
'steppe falconet'
Küçük Kerkenez
'small kestrel'
Falco tinnunculus
link to photolink to photo
Common kestrel
Eurasian kestrel
Kestrel

Обыкновенная пустельга
Начин шонхор
ᠨᠠᠴᠢᠨ ᠱᠣᠩᠬᠣᠷ
nachiŋ shoŋkhor
'falcon₂ falcon₁'
Шонхор
ᠱᠣᠩᠬᠣᠷ
shoŋkhor
'falcon₁' (32)
  红隼
(紅隼)
hóng sǔn
'red falcon'
Taiwan:
(红隼)
紅隼
hóng zhǔn
'red falcon'
チョウゲンボウ
(長元坊)
chōgenbō
'kestrel'
황조롱이
hwang-jorongi
'yellow sparrowhawk'
Кәдімгі күйкентай
kädimgi küykentay
'true falconet'
Kerkenez
'kestrel'
Falco vespertinus
link to photo
Red-footed falcon
Western red-footed falcon

Кобчик
Турамтай шонхор
ᠲᠣᠷᠠᠮᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠱᠣᠩᠬᠣᠷ
turamtai shoŋkhor
'turamtai falcon₁'
  Inner M formerly:
Улаавар хөлт хүйхнэг
ᠣᠯᠠᠪᠢᠷ ᠬᠦᠯᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠢᠬᠦᠨᠡᠭ
ulaavar khölt khüikhneg
'reddish-legged hobby' (31) (Shared with Falco amurensis)
Other:
Улаан хөлт хүйхнэг
ᠣᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠯᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠢᠬᠦᠨᠡᠭ
ulaaŋ khölt khüikhneg
'red-legged hobby' (Shared with Falco amurensis)
西红脚隼
(西紅腳隼)
xī hóng-jiǎo sǔn
'western red-footed falcon' (2, 4)
红脚隼
(紅腳隼)
hóng-jiǎo sǔn
'red-footed falcon' (3)
›Taxonomy‹
ニシアカアシチョウゲンボウ
(西赤足長元坊)
nishi aka-ashi chōgenbō
'western red-legged kestrel'
  Бөктергі
böktergi
'boktergi'
Ala Doğan
'motley falcon'
Falco amurensis
link to photo
Amur falcon
Eastern red-footed falcon
Manchurian red-footed falcon
Red-legged falcon

Амурский кобчик
Амарын шонхор
ᠠᠮᠣᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠱᠣᠩᠬᠣᠷ
amariŋ shoŋkhor
'Amur falcon₁'
Улаан хөлт хүйхнэг
ᠣᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠯᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠢᠬᠦᠨᠡᠭ
ulaaŋ khölt khüikhneg
'red-legged hobby' (32)
Mongolia formerly:
Амарын турамтай шонхор
ᠠᠮᠣᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠷᠠᠮᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠱᠣᠩᠬᠣᠷ
amariŋ turamtai shoŋkhor
'Amur turamtai falcon₁'
Other:
Улаан хөлт начин
ᠣᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠯᠲᠦ ᠨᠠᠴᠢᠨ
ulaaŋ khölt nachiŋ
'red-legged falcon₂ (Inner Mongolia) (Shared with Falco vespertinus)
红脚隼
(紅腳隼)
hóng-jiǎo sǔn
'red-footed falcon' (1, 2, 4, 5)
阿穆尔隼
(阿穆爾隼)
āmū'ěr sǔn
'Amur falcon' (3)
›Taxonomy‹
Taiwan:
(红脚隼)
紅腳隼
hóng-jiǎo zhǔn
'red-footed falcon'
アカアシチョウゲンボウ
(赤足長元坊)
aka-ashi chōgenbō
'red-legged kestrel'
비둘기조롱이
bidulgi-jorongi
'pigeon sparrowhawk'
   
Falco columbarius
link to photolink to photo
Merlin

Дербник
Хайргууна шонхор
ᠬᠠᠢᠢᠷᠠᠭᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠱᠣᠩᠬᠣᠷ
khairguun shoŋkhor
'khairguun falcon₁'
Хайргууна шонхор
ᠬᠠᠢᠢᠷᠠᠭᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠱᠣᠩᠬᠣᠷ
khairguun shoŋkhor
'khairguun falcon₁' (32)
Inner M formerly:
Турамтай начин
ᠲᠣᠷᠣᠮᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠠᠴᠢᠨ
turamtai nachiŋ
'turamtai falcon₂' (31)
or
Харнүдэн
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠨᠢᠳᠦᠨ
khar-nüdeŋ
'black eye' (alt in 31)
Other:
Хайргана шонхор
khairgan shoŋkhor
ᠬᠠᠢᠢᠷᠭᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠱᠣᠩᠬᠣᠷ
'khairgan falcon₁' (possibly 'seagull falcon')
灰背隼
(灰背隼)
huī-bèi sǔn
'grey-backed falcon'
Taiwan:
(灰背隼)
灰背隼
huī-bèi zhǔn
'grey-backed falcon'
コチョウゲンボウ
(小長元坊)
ko chōgenbō
'small kestrel'
쇠황조롱이
soe-hwang-jorongi
'small yellow sparrowhawk'
Тұрымтай
turımtay
'turimtay'
Boz Doğan
'dun falcon'
Latin
English/Russian
Mongolian
Inner M
Other M
Chinese
Japanese
Korean
Kazakh
Turkish
Falco subbuteo
link to photolink to photo
Eurasian hobby
Northern hobby
Hobby

Чеглок,
Обыкновенный чеглок
Шууман шонхор
ᠱᠣᠣᠮᠠᠨ ᠱᠣᠩᠬᠣᠷ
shuumaŋ shoŋkhor
'shuuman falcon₁'
Хүйхнэг
ᠭᠦᠢᠭᠦᠨᠡᠭ
khüikhneg
'hobby' (31, 32)

Other:
Хараацайч начин
ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠴᠢ ᠨᠠᠴᠢᠨ
kharaatsaich nachiŋ
'swallow falcon₂' (Inner Mongolia)
燕隼
(燕隼)
yàn-sǔn
'swallow falcon'
Taiwan:
(燕隼)
燕隼
yàn-zhǔn
'swallow falcon'
チゴハヤブサ
(稚児隼)
chigo hayabusa
'child falcon'
새홀리기
saeholligi
'hobby' (sae='bird')
Жағалтай
jağaltay
'hobby'
Delice Doğan
'crazy? falcon'
Falco cherrug
link to photolink to photo
Saker falcon

Балобан,
Обыкновенный балобан
Идлэг шонхор
ᠢᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠱᠣᠩᠬᠣᠷ
idleg shoŋkhor
'hawk falcon₁' (idleg refers to a kind of hawk, identity unclear)
Идлэг шонхор
ᠢᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠱᠣᠩᠬᠣᠷ
idleg shoŋkhor
'hawk falcon₁' (idleg refers to a kind of hawk, identity unclear) (32)
Inner M formerly:
Шонхор начин
ᠱᠣᠩᠬᠣᠷ ᠨᠠᠴᠢᠨ
shoŋkhor nachiŋ
'falcon₁ falcon₂' (31)
猎隼
(獵隼)
liè-sǔn
'hunting falcon'
セーカーハヤブサ
(セーカー隼)
sēkā hayabusa
'saker falcon'
헨다손매
hendason-mae
'Henderson (?) hawk'
Ителгі
ïtelgi
'itelgi'
Ulu Doğan
'large falcon'
Falco rusticolus
Falco gyrfalco
link to photo
Gyrfalcon
Gyr falcon

Кречет
Цагаан шонхор
ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠱᠣᠩᠬᠣᠷ
tsagaaŋ shoŋkhor
'white falcon₁'
Цагаан шонхор
ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠱᠣᠩᠬᠣᠷ
tsagaaŋ shoŋkhor
'white falcon₁' (32)
Mongolia formerly:
Жадан шонхор
ᠵᠢᠳᠡᠨ ᠱᠣᠩᠬᠣᠷ
jadaŋ shoŋkhor
'lance falcon₁'
矛隼
(矛隼)
máo-sǔn
'lance falcon'
シロハヤブサ
(白隼)
shiro hayabusa
'white falcon'
  Ақ сұңқар
aq suñqar
'white falcon'
 
Falco peregrinus
link to photolink to photo
Peregrine falcon

Сапсан

Falco pelegrinoides:
Barbary falcon

Шахин,
Рыжеголовый сокол
Эгэл шонхор
ᠡᠭᠡᠯ ᠱᠣᠩᠬᠣᠷ
egel shoŋkhor
'common falcon₁'
Falco pelegrinoides:
Шилийн шонхор
ᠰᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠱᠣᠩᠬᠣᠷ
shiliŋ shoŋkhor
'hill falcon₁'
Начин
ᠨᠠᠴᠢᠨ
nachiŋ
'falcon₂' (31, 32)
Other:
Нугасч начин
ᠨᠣᠭᠣᠰᠣᠴᠢ ᠨᠠᠴᠢᠨ
nugasch nachiŋ
'duck (or duck-eating) falcon₂' (Inner Mongolia)
游隼
(遊隼)
yóu-sǔn
'roaming falcon'
Taiwan:
(游隼)
遊隼
yóu zhǔn
'roaming falcon'

Falco pelegrinoides:
拟游隼
(擬遊隼)
nǐ yóu-sǔn
'pseudo roaming falcon' (2, 4, 5)
›Taxonomy‹
ハヤブサ
()
hayabusa
'falcon'
Falco pelegrinoides:
バーバリーハヤブサ
(バーバリー隼)
bābarii hayabusa
'Barbary falcon'

mae
'hawk'
Лашын
laşın
Falco pelegrinoides:
'lashin'
Бидайық
bïdayıq
'bidayiq'
Gök Doğan
'sky falcon'

中国鸟类种和亚种分类名录大全(修订版) 郑作新 著 科学出版社 北京 2000年
A Complete Checklist of Species and Subspecies of the Chinese Birds (Revised Edition) by Cheng Tso-Hsin, Science Press, Beijing 2000

中国鸟类分类与分布名录 主编:郑光美 科学出版社 北京 2005年
A Checklist on the Classification and Distribution of the Birds of China Chief editor: Zheng Guangmei, Science Press, Beijing 2005

中国鸟类野外手册(中文版)约翰・马敬能、卡伦・菲利普斯,合作者:荷芬奇,翻译:卢和芬 湖南教育出版社 长沙 2000年
A Field Guide to the Birds of China (Chinese translation) by John MacKinnon, Karen Phillipps, in collaboration with He Fen-qi, translated by Lu Hefen, Hunan Jiaoyu Chubanshe (Hunan Educational Press) Changsha 2000

世界鸟类分类与分布名录 主编:郑光美 科学出版社 北京 2002年
A Checklist on the Classification and Distribution of the Birds of the World Chief editor: Zheng Guangmei, Science Press, Beijing 2002

世界鸟类名称(拉丁文、汉文、英文对照)第二版 郑作新等 科学出版社 北京 2002年
Birds of the World (Latin, Chinese and English Names) 2nd ed. by Cheng Tso-Hsin et al, Science Press, Beijing 2002

汉蒙名词术语分类词典(自然科学部分) Mongolian (Cyrillic): Хятад Монгол нэр томъёоны зүйл хуваасан толь (байгалийн шинжлэх ухааны бүлэг) (Chinese-Mongolian classified terminological dictionary, natural sciences part) by 《汉蒙名词术语分类词典》编纂委员会 Mongolian (Cyrillic): "Хятад Монгол нэр томъёоны зүйл хуваасан толь" найруулах комисс (Chinese-Mongolian classified terminological dictionary editorial committee), Inner Mongolian People's Press, Hohhot 1990

内蒙古动物志 (第三卷 鸟纲 非雀形目) Fauna Inner Mongolia (Volume 3 Aves Non-Passerines) 主编:旭日干 (Chief Editor: Xurigan), 内蒙古人大学版社 (Inner Mongolian University Press), Hohhot 2013

御製五體清文鑒 yùzhì wǔtǐ qīngwén jiàn Mongolian: Хааны бичсэн таван зүилийн үсгээр хавсарсан манж үгний толь бичиг khaani bichsen tavaŋ züiliŋ üsgeer khavsarsaŋ maŋj ügni tol' bichig Mirror of the Manchu language with an overview of five different languages, compiled by the Emperor OR Imperial Pentaglot Manchu Mirror, originally published in 1805.