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Paridae
วงศ์นกติต
woŋ nók tìt

Họ Bạc má

山雀科
shān-què kē

山雀科
shān-què kē

シジュウカラ科
shijū-kara ka

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General

Information is from dictionaries and other sources. Comments and corrections welcome. Hover over Green Lettering Green lettering at this site hides a tool tip with glosses, further explanations, etc. Hover cursor to reveal. to see additional information.

Tits are not a prominent part of the Thai avifauna and did not have their own general name in Thai until one was assigned by a modern ornithologist. Prior to that time tits, and the other smallest insect-eating native birds, were collectively referred to by the onomatopoetic name นกกระจิบ nók krà-cìp, which is today ornithologically restricted to the tailorbirds (genus Orthotomus) and prinias (Cisticolidae).

The new Thai tit general name was closely patterned after English usage, not only resembling English 'tit' in sound, but also applied to the same three families called tits in English (Paridae, Remizidae, and Aegithalidae).

There have actually been three successive Thai tit general names in recent years. Although similar in appearance, each is spelt differently and is pronounced with a different tone.

1. The first tit name นกติ้ด nók tît (here called 'tit₁') is used in the text of (18), but not in the index. It is also used in most of the names in (19).

2. The second tit name นกติ๊ด nók tít (here called 'tit₂') initially appears in the index of (18), in two names in (19), and exclusively in (20 and 20a).

3. The third (and current) tit name นกติต nók tìt (here called 'tit₃') is used exclusively in (21, 22, and 23).

In (18) and in (19) the use of two different tit names is clearly unintentional, most likely resulting from typesetting errors which were too costly to correct at the time. Because these books have been widely used for many years, their versions of the tit names are included here in the tables exactly as printed. Complete replacement of the first tit name นกติ้ด nók tît 'tit₁' in (20) by the original author suggests that the second tit name นกติ๊ด nók tít 'tit₂' is the form intended from the start.

However, the second tit name นกติ๊ด nók tít 'tit₂' is susceptible to misinterpretation. There is an old munia general name นกกระติ๊ด nók krà-tít (or นกกะติ๊ด nók kà-tít) which has been ornithologically regularised as a general name for estrildids (Estrildidae), and also extended to grosbeaks (Fringillidae). Historically, there is no evidence that tits and munias (or tits and grosbeaks) have ever shared the same Thai names. The inclusion of ติ๊ด tít in both the modern name นกติ๊ด nók tít 'tit₂' and in the old name นกก(ร)ะติ๊ด nók k(r)à-tít 'munia' could be incorrectly interpreted as implying a relationship between the two groups.

It is to eliminate these unwanted implications that the third tit general name นกติต nók tìt 'tit₃' was adopted. In addition to a change in tone, orthographically it also has a different final consonant.

To distinguish the family name of the Paridae, (20) used วงศ์นกติ๊ดแท้ woŋ nók tít tʰáee 'true-tit family', but this has not been used elsewhere or in species names. More recent practice (22, 23) has been to use วงศ์นกติต woŋ nók tìt 'tit family' for the Paridae.

Species names

› ABOUT THIS TABLE‹
SCIENTIFIC & WESTERN
THAI
OTHER S. E. ASIAN
EAST ASIAN
Cephalopyrus
Latin
English
Thai
Other Th
Malaysian
Indonesian
Vietnamese
Chinese
Japanese
Cephalopyrus flammiceps
link to photo
Fire-capped tit นกติตหน้าแดง nók tìt nâa-daeeŋ
'red-faced tit₃ (bird)' (21, 22, 23) (conflicts with Aegithalos concinnus)
นกติ๊ดหน้าแดง
nók tít nâa-daeeŋ
'red-faced tit₂ (bird)' (19, 20, 20a)
นกติตหัวแดง
nók tìt hŭa-daeeŋ
'red-headed tit₃ (bird)' (alt in 21)
นกติ้ดหน้าแดง
nók tît nâa-daeeŋ
'red-faced tit₁ (bird)' (18)
      火冠雀
(火冠雀)
huǒ-guān què
'fire-crested finch' (1, 2, 3, 4)
火帽雀
(火帽雀)
huǒ-mào què
'fire-hatted finch' (5)
ベニビタイガラ
(紅額雀)
beni-bitai gara
'red-foreheaded tit'
Sylviparus
Latin
English
Thai
Other Th
Malaysian
Indonesian
Vietnamese
Chinese
Japanese
Sylviparus modestus
link to photo
Yellow-browed tit นกติตคิ้วเหลือง
nók tìt kʰíw-lĕuaŋ
'yellow-eyebrowed tit₃ (bird)' (21, 22, 23)
นกติ๊ดคิ้วเหลือง
nók tít-kʰíw-lĕuaŋ
'yellow-eyebrowed tit₂ (bird)' (20, 20a)
นกติ้ดคิ้วเหลือง
nók tît kʰíw-lĕuaŋ
'yellow-eyebrowed tit₁ (bird)' (18, 19)
    Chim Bạc má rừng
'forest silver-cheek bird' (12, 13, 34)
黄眉林雀
(黄眉林雀)
huáng-méi lín-què
'yellow-eyebrowed forest-finch'
メジロガラ
(目白雀)
me-jiro gara
'white-eyed tit'
Melanochlora
Latin
English
Thai
Other Th
Malaysian
Indonesian
Vietnamese
Chinese
Japanese
Melanochlora sultanea
Parus sultanea
link to photo
Sultan tit นกติตสุลต่าน
nók tìt sŭnlatàan
'sultan tit₃ (bird)' (21, 22, 23)
นกติ๊ดสุลต่าน
nók tít sŭnlatàan
'sultan tit₂ (bird)' (20, 20a)
นกติ้ดสุลต่าน
nók tît sŭnlatàan
'sultan tit₁ (bird)' (18, 19)
Burung Serai Raja
'king palace-bird'
Burung Serai Sultan
'sultan palace-bird'
Burung Gelatuk-batu Gunung
'mountain rock chatterer (bird)' (onomat.) (cf Java sparrow)
Chim mào vàng
'yellow crested bird' (12)
冕雀
(冕雀)
miǎn-què
'official-headdress finch'
サルタンガラ
(サルタン雀)
sarutan gara
'sultan tit'
Parus
Latin
English
Thai
Other Th
Malaysian
Indonesian
Vietnamese
Chinese
Japanese
Parus cinereus Cinereous Tit นกติตใหญ่
nók tìt yày
'large tit₃ (bird)' (21, 22, 23)
นกติ๊ดใหญ่
nók tít yày
'large tit₂ (bird)' (20, 20a)
นกติ้ดใหญ่
nók tît yày
'large tit₁ (bird)' (18, 19)
Burung Serai Bakau
'mangrove palace-bird' (24, 26, 27)
Burung Gelatuk-batu Kelabu
'grey rock chatterer (bird)' (onomat.) (cf Java sparrow)
Chim Bạc má
'silver-cheek bird' (12, 13, 34)
大山雀
(大山雀)
dà shān-què
'large mountain-finch'
Taiwan:
(白颊山雀)
白頰山雀
bái-jiá shān-què
'white-cheeked mountain-finch'
シジュウカラ
(四十雀)
shijū-kara
'forty tit'
Machlolophus
Latin
English
Thai
Other Th
Malaysian
Indonesian
Vietnamese
Chinese
Japanese
Machlolophus spilonotus
Parus spilonotus
link to photo
Yellow-cheeked tit
Chinese yellow tit
นกติตแก้มเหลือง
nók tìt kʰâeem-lĕuaŋ
'yellow-cheeked tit₃ (bird)' (21, 22, 23)
นกติ๊ดแก้มเหลือง
nók tít kʰâeem-lĕuaŋ
'yellow-cheeked tit₂ (bird)' (20, 20a)
นกติ้ดแก้มเหลือง
nók tît kʰâeem-lĕuaŋ
'yellow-cheeked tit₁ (bird)' (18, 19)
    Chim Bạc má mào
'crested silver-cheek bird' (12, 13)
黄颊山雀
(黃頰山雀)
huáng-jiá shān-què
'yellow-cheeked mountain-finch'
ルリカンムリガラ
(瑠璃冠雀 or 琉璃冠雀)
ruri kanmuri gara
'lapis lazuli crested tit'

Chinese ornithologists reserved the term 山雀 shān-què 'mountain finch' (or 'mountain sparrow') for the genus Parus. Other genera are simply called 雀 què 'sparrow/finch. With Parus now split into several genera, the motivation for this distinction has been lost.

The term 山雀 shān-què 'mountain finch' (or 'mountain sparrow') is the ornithological name for the tits (Paridae). The name has possibly been influenced by Japanese ヤマガラ yama-gara, written 山雀, which is the name of the Varied Tit (Sittiparus varius). Within the Paridae, Mainland usage now reserves 山雀 for species that at the time belonged to the genus Parus. Other genera use the abbreviated form 雀 què.

นกติ้ด nók tît 'tit₁' in (18, 19) is used for birds called 'tits' in English. In addition to the Paridae, these include the Remizidae and the Aegithalidae.

นกติ๊ด nók tít 'tit₂' in (18, 19, 20, 20a) is used for birds called 'tits' in English. In addition to the Paridae, these include the Remizidae and the Aegithalidae. นกติ๊ด nók tít 'tit₂' is not related to older นกก(ร)ะติ๊ด nók k(r)à-tít 'munia', used in most estrildid (Estrildidae) names and also for grosbeaks (Fringillidae), although both include ติ๊ด tít.

นกติต nók tìt 'tit₃' in (21, 22, 23) is used for all birds called 'tits' in English. In addition to the Paridae, these include the Remizidae and the Aegithalidae.

中国鸟类种和亚种分类名录大全(修订版) 郑作新 著 科学出版社 北京 2000年
A Complete Checklist of Species and Subspecies of the Chinese Birds (Revised Edition) by Cheng Tso-Hsin, Science Press, Beijing 2000

中国鸟类分类与分布名录 主编:郑光美 科学出版社 北京 2005年
A Checklist on the Classification and Distribution of the Birds of China Chief editor: Zheng Guangmei, Science Press, Beijing 2005

中国鸟类野外手册(中文版)约翰・马敬能、卡伦・菲利普斯,合作者:荷芬奇,翻译:卢和芬 湖南教育出版社 长沙 2000年
A Field Guide to the Birds of China (Chinese translation) by John MacKinnon, Karen Phillipps, in collaboration with He Fen-qi, translated by Lu Hefen, Hunan Jiaoyu Chubanshe (Hunan Educational Press) Changsha 2000

世界鸟类分类与分布名录 主编:郑光美 科学出版社 北京 2002年
A Checklist on the Classification and Distribution of the Birds of the World Chief editor: Zheng Guangmei, Science Press, Beijing 2002

世界鸟类名称(拉丁文、汉文、英文对照)第二版 郑作新等 科学出版社 北京 2002年
Birds of the World (Latin, Chinese and English Names) 2nd ed. by Cheng Tso-Hsin et al, Science Press, Beijing 2002

Danh Lục Chim Việt Nam (In lần thứ hai) (Checklist of the Birds of Vietnam) Võ Quý, Nguyễn Cử, Nhà Xuất Bản Nông Nghiệp, Hà Nội 1999

Chim Việt Nam Nguyễn Cử, Lê Trọng Trải, Karen Phillipps; Nhà Xuất Bản Lao Động - Xã Hội, 2000

Bird Guide of Thailand by Lekagul, Boonsong, Ramin Press, Bangkok 1968

Bird Guide of Thailand 2nd edition by Lekagul, Boonsong and Edward W. Cronin, Jr., Kurusapa Ladprao Press, Bangkok 1974

A guide to the Birds of Thailand by Lekagul, Boonsong and Philip D. Round, Saha Karn Bhaet Co., Ltd., Bangkok 1991

Check-list of Thai Birds Round, Philip D., Bird Conservation Society of Thailand, Bangkok 2008. Draft version downloaded from the site of the Bird Conservation Society of Thailand in 2009 but no longer posted there, an expanded update of the species included in Lekagul & Round 1991

นกในเมืองไทย (Birds in Thailand) by รศ. โอภาส ขอบเขตต์ (Assoc. Prof. Obhas Khobkhet), Sarakadee Press, Bangkok 1998

นกเมืองไทย (Birds [of] Thailand) by จารุจินต์ นภีตะภัฏ, กานต์ เลขะกุล, วัชระ สงวนสมบติ (Jarujin Nabhitabata, Karn Lekagul, Wachara Sanguansombat), คณะบุคคล นายแพทย์ บุญส่ง เลขะกุล (Dr Boonsong Lekagul Group), Bangkok 2007

นกเมืองไทย (Birds [of] Thailand) by จารุจินต์ นภีตะภัฏ, กานต์ เลขะกุล, วัชระ สงวนสมบติ (Jarujin Nabhitabata, Karn Lekagul, Wachara Sanguansombat), คณะบุคคล นายแพทย์ บุญส่ง เลขะกุล (Dr Boonsong Lekagul Group), Bangkok 2012

Senarai Nama-nama Burung Semenanjung Malaysia dan Asia Tenggara by Ismail, Abdul Rahman, Perhilitan (Jabatam Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara, Semenanjung Malaysia), Kuala Lumpur 1981
(List of the Names of Birds of Peninsular Malaysia and Southeast Asia by Ismail, Abdul Rahman, Department of Wildlife and National Parks, Peninsular Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 1981)

The Birds of the Thai-Malay Peninsula: Vol. 1 - Non-passerines by Wells, David R., Academic Press, London 1999

A Field Guide to the Birds of West Malaysia and Singapore by Jeyarajasingam, Allen and Alan Pearson, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1999

The Birds of the Thai-Malay Peninsula: Vol. 2 - Passerines by Wells, David R., Christopher Helm, A&C Black, London 2007

A Field Guide to the Birds of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore (second edition) by Jeyarajasingham, Allen, Illustrations by Alan Pearson, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2012

A Field Guide to the Birds of Java and Bali (second edition) by MacKinnon, John, Gadjah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta 1990

Danh Lục Các Loài Chim ở Việt Nam (Latinh, Việt, Pháp, Hán) Trần Văn Chánh 2008-2009