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Oriolidae
Шаргачийнхан
sharagchiŋkhaŋ

黄鹂科
huáng-lí kē

黃鸝科
huáng-lí kē

コウライウグイス科
kōrai-uguisu ka

꾀꼬리과
kkoekkori-gwa

Sarıasmagiller

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General

This list is 'in beta'. Information is from dictionaries and other sources. Kazakh, Turkish, and Korean glosses are tentative. Comments and corrections welcome. Hover over Green Lettering Green lettering at this site hides a tool tip with glosses, further explanations, etc. Hover cursor to reveal. to see additional information.

Mongolian has a long tradition of calling the orioles Гургалдай gurgaldai or Алтан гургалдай altan gurgaldai 'golden gurgaldai'. (Inner Mongolian prefers the pronunciation Гургуулдай gurguuldai). The name Алтан гургалдай altan gurgaldai appears in the Qing-era Imperial Pentaglot Manchu Mirror (37), originally published 1805, as the equivalent of Chinese 黄鹂 huánglí (Black-naped Oriole). This tradition continues in many dictionaries, with Гургалдай gurgaldai listed as the Mongolian equivalent of 'oriole' in English-Mongolian dictionariesАнгли Монгол толь: oriole = гургалдай
English-Mongolian Dictionary: oriole = гургалдай, golden ~ = алтан гургалдай
, the Mongolian equivalent of Иволга ivolga in Russian-Mongolian dictionariesОрос Монгол толь (Русско-Монгольский словарь): иволга = гургалдай
Ород=Бурят-Монгол словарь (Русско=Byрят-Монгольский словарь): иволга = гургалдай
, and the Mongolian equivalent of 黄鹂 huánglí in Chinese-Mongolian dictionaries汉蒙词典: 黄鹂 = алтан гургалдай
汉蒙词典: 黄莺 = манхар алтан гургалдай
多功能 新汉蒙词典: 黄莺 (黄鹂) = гургал
. In Inner Mongolia the orioles are still ornithologically identified as Гургуулдай gurguuldai.

But it is by no means certain that Гургалдай gurgaldai (which is an onomatopoeic term) always referred specifically to orioles. It is equally possible that it began as a general name for passerines noted for their beautiful song and was then applied to different birds in different places. While the tradition in areas closer to China is to equate Гургалдай gurgaldai to the oriole, in Mongolia, it is currently used for the nightingale or nightingale-thrush (genus Luscinia of the Muscicapidae). Many dictionaries Англи Монгол толь: nightingale = алтан гургалдай
English-Mongolian Dictionary: nightingale = алтан гургалдай
Орос Монгол толь (Русско-Монгольский словарь): соловей = алтан гургалдай
Ород=Бурят-Монгол словарь (Русско=Byрят-Монгольский словарь): соловей = алтан гургалдай
Қазақша Монғолша сөздик (Казах-Монгол толь): бұлбұл = гургалдай, алтан гургалдай
A Modern Mongolian-English Dictionary: гургалдай = nightingale; алтан гургалдай = thrush nightingale
現代蒙英日辞典 - A Modern Mongolian-English-Japanese Dictionary: гургалдай = nightingale, ナイチンゲール, 夜啼鳥
Шинэ Монгол Хятад толь - 新蒙汉词典: гургалдай = 歌莺属;勺鸡,夜莺,锦莺,алтан гургалдай = 夜莺
Монгол Орос толь - Монгольско-Русский словар: алтан гургалдай = соловей
Монгол Казах толь - Монғолша-Қазақша сөздик: гургалдай = бұлбұл, алтан гургалдай = сарша бұлбұл
adopt this (sometimes with contradictory results), including monolingual dictionaries in Mongolia. (Interestingly, several Japanese dictionaries translate Гургалдай gurgaldai as uguisu (Japanese Bush Warbler), the quintessential Japanese songbird.)

Note that Inner Mongolian dictionaries also give Гургуулдай gurguuldai as a name for the Koklass pheasant 蒙汉词典: гургалдай = 勺鸡 -- not found in Mongolia -- probably related to the similarity of the name to that of the pheasants, which is Гургуул gurguul.

Given that the name Гургалдай gurgaldai is primarily used for the genus Luscinia, in pre-2007 ornithological Mongolian the name for the orioles was Шаргач бялзуухай sharagch byalzuukhai 'yellowish finch' or 'bay finch', where Бялзуухай byalzuukhai is a generic term applied to small passerine songbirds. This name is also found in the Imperial Pentaglot Manchu Mirror (37) as an equivalent to Chinese 黄鸟 huángniǎo 'yellow bird', which is another Chinese name for the oriole. In the "binomial" list of 2007, this name was shortened and standardised to Шаргач sharagch.

Other names for the orioles include Заржхин бялзуухай zarjkhiŋ byalzuukhai 'oriole finch' and Алтан заржхин altaŋ zarjkhiŋ 'golden oriole', found in Inner Mongolian dictionaries.

Species names

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ORIOLINAE
SCIENTIFIC & WESTERN
MONGOLIAN
EAST ASIAN
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Oriolus
Latin
English/Russian
Mongolian
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Chinese
Japanese
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Kazakh
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Oriolus oriolus
link to photo
Eurasian golden oriole
Golden oriole
European golden oriole

Обыкновенная иволга
Эгэл шаргач
ᠡᠭᠡᠯ ᠱᠢᠷᠭᠠᠴᠢ
egel sharagch
'common yellowish'
Алтан гургалдай
ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠭᠣᠷᠭᠣᠯᠳᠠᠢ
altaŋ gurgaldai
'golden warbler' (31)
Mongolia formerly:
Шаргач бялзуухай
ᠱᠢᠷᠭᠠᠴᠢ ᠪᠢᠯᠵᠣᠣᠬᠠᠢ
sharagch byalzuukhai
'yellowish finch'
金黄鹂
(金黃鸝)
jīn huáng-lí
'golden oriole'
ニシコウライウグイス
(西高麗鴬)
nishi kōrai uguisu
'western Korean warbler'
  Мысықторғай
mısıq-torğay
'cat sparrow'
Sarıasma
'yellow asma'
Oriolus chinensis
link to photolink to photo
Black-naped oriole

Чеэноголовая иволга,
Китайская иволга
Дорнын шаргач
ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠱᠢᠷᠭᠠᠴᠢ
dorniŋ sharagch
'eastern yellowish'
Манхар алтан гургуулдай
ᠮᠠᠩᠬᠠᠷ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠭᠣᠷᠭᠣᠣᠯᠳᠠᠢ
maŋkhar altaŋ gurguuldai
'masked golden warbler' (31, 33)
Mongolia formerly:
Шаргуй бялзуухай
ᠰᠢᠷᠠᠭᠣᠢ ᠪᠢᠯᠵᠣᠣᠬᠠᠢ
shargui byalzuukhai
'shargui finch'
黑枕黄鹂
(黑枕黃鸝)
hēi-zhěn huáng-lí
'black-naped yellow oriole'
Taiwan:
(黄鹂)
黄鸝
huáng-lí
'yellow-oriole'
コウライウグイス
(高麗鴬)
kōrai uguisu
'Korean warbler'
꾀꼬리
kkoekkori
'oriole'
   

The name Гургалдай gurgaldai has been applied to a range of birds famous for their song, including orioles, robins, and nightingales. For consistency, the term has here been glossed as 'warbler', following modern Mongolian ornithological usage, but it should be kept in mind that there was a historical identification with the oriole in Qing China.

汉蒙名词术语分类词典(自然科学部分) Mongolian (Cyrillic): Хятад Монгол нэр томъёоны зүйл хуваасан толь (байгалийн шинжлэх ухааны бүлэг) (Chinese-Mongolian classified terminological dictionary, natural sciences part) by 《汉蒙名词术语分类词典》编纂委员会 Mongolian (Cyrillic): "Хятад Монгол нэр томъёоны зүйл хуваасан толь" найруулах комисс (Chinese-Mongolian classified terminological dictionary editorial committee), Inner Mongolian People's Press, Hohhot 1990

内蒙古动物志 (第四卷 鸟纲 雀形目) Fauna Inner Mongolia (Volume 4 Aves Passerines), 主编:旭日干 (Chief Editor: Xurigan), 内蒙古人大学版社 (Inner Mongolian University Press), Hohhot 2015

御製五體清文鑒 yùzhì wǔtǐ qīngwén jiàn Mongolian: Хааны бичсэн таван зүилийн үсгээр хавсарсан манж үгний толь бичиг khaani bichsen tavaŋ züiliŋ üsgeer khavsarsaŋ maŋj ügni tol' bichig Mirror of the Manchu language with an overview of five different languages, compiled by the Emperor OR Imperial Pentaglot Manchu Mirror, originally published in 1805.