The following is based on analysis of dictionaries and other sources. Comments and corrections welcome. Malaysian names are now being updated. For consistency, Vietnamese bird names (except for ducks and chickens) are preceded by the word Chim meaning 'bird'. Ornithological lists mostly omit this as understood. Hover over Green Lettering Green lettering at this site hides a tool tip with glosses, further explanations, etc. Hover cursor to reveal. to see additional information.
As in the West, the oriole is noted for its song in China and countries influenced by its culture. The Vietnamese names for the oriole have largely been borrowed from Chinese. The main term for 'oriole' has been borrowed more than once, resulting in some odd mixtures.
1. The Vietnamese name for the oriole in ornithological usage is Vàng anh, where vàng means 'yellow' and anh means 'oriole'. Vàng anh is ultimately from Chinese 黃鶯 'yellow-oriole', although apart from the Chinese-style word order (adjective before noun) it is a well assimilated form. Dictionaries suggest that the Vietnamese word order Chim anh vàng also exists.
2. A second major name for the oriole is is Hoàng oanh, using a more 'orthodox' reading of the Chinese characters 黃鶯. This is probably a more recent borrowing.
3. In addition, the word 鶯 by itself traditionally refers to the oriole in Chinese, and in the same way plain Oanh also means 'oriole' in Vietnamese.
4. The mixed form Hoàng anh, combining hoàng (from Chinese 黃 'yellow') with the earlier borrowing anh, is also found.
5. Other names have also been borrowed from Chinese. 黃鸝 'yellow-oriole' has been borrowed as Hoàng ly, and the name 倉庚 has been borrowed as Thương canh. The latter may also be found in the abbreviated form Canh.
6. Choắt chòe (with the alternative form Chúyt chòe) is a more purely Vietnamese name for the oriole. It may be related to Chích chòe, which is the name of the Magpie Robins and Forktails. Choắt by itself usually means 'tiny'.
The above may be summarised as follows:
|Vàng anh||'yellow oriole' (Chinese word order, adjective plus noun)|
|Anh vàng||'yellow oriole)' (Vietnamese word order, noun plus adjective), rarely used form.|
|Hoàng anh||'yellow oriole' (hoàng is from Chinese 黃 'yellow')|
|Hoàng oanh||'yellow oriole' (from Chinese 黃鶯 'yellow oriole')|
|Oanh||'oriole' (oanh from Chinese 鶯 'oriole')|
|Hoàng ly||(from Chinese 黃鸝 'yellow oriole')|
|Choắt chòe||(cf chích chòe Magpie Robin, Forktail. choắt = 'tiny')|
|Chúyt chòe||(variant of the)|
|Thương canh||(from Chinese 倉庚 )|
|Canh||(from the above)|
The Maroon Oriole has been given the name Tử anh, where tử appears to be from Chinese 紫 meaning 'purple'.
In what appears to be a modern development, the word oanh has been extended to cover the robins and leiothrixes, which, like orioles, are noted for their song. (In modern times Chinese 鶯 is technically used for the Sylviidae, and, possibly under Chinese influence, attempts to extend oanh to the warblers can also be found.)
Characters used for the word anh in the now obsolete Chữ Nôm characters include:
Images from the Vietnamese Nôm Preservation Foundation dictionary. (Errors are the sole responsibility of the author of this site)
|Anh||, (the latter is the Chinese character 'warbler')|
|Oanh||(the Chinese character 'warbler', read Oanh in Sino-Vietnamese texts, also read anh in Chữ Nôm)|
SCIENTIFIC & WESTERN
S. E. ASIAN
|Chim Tử anh
'purple oriole (bird)' (12, 33)
nók kʰa-mîn daeeŋ
Asian black-headed oriole
Loriot à capuchon noir
|Chim Vàng anh đầu đen
'black-headed yellow oriole (bird)' (12, 33)
'black-headed yellow oriole'
zu-guro kōrai uguisu
'black-headed Korean warbler'
nók kʰa-mîn hŭa-dam yày
'large black-headed turmeric-bird'
|Burung Kunyit Topeng Hitam
'black-masked turmeric-bird' (turmeric-bird=iora/oriole) (26)
Burung Kunyit Belukar
'thicket turmeric-bird' (turmeric-bird=iora/oriole) (dictionary)
Burung Dendang Belukar
'thicket crow (bird)' (24)
|Burung Kepudang Kerudung-hitam
'black-veiled oriole (bird)'
Loriot de Chine
|Chim Vàng anh
'Chinese yellow oriole (bird)' (12, 13, 33)
|Chim Anh vàng
Chim Hoàng anh
Chim Hoàng oanh
Chim Hoàng ly
('yellow-oriole (bird)', from Chinese 黃鸝 )
Chim Hoàng tước
'yellow sparrow bird' (from Chinese 黃雀 'yellow-sparrow')
Chim choắt chòe
'choat choe bird'
Chim chúyt chòe
variant of 'choat choe bird'
'black-naped yellow oriole'
nók kʰa-mîn tʰáay-tʰoaay-dam
|Burung Kunyit Besar
'large turmeric-bird' (turmeric-bird=iora/oriole) (26,, 22)
Burung Dendang Selayang
'Selayang dendang-bird ' (Selayang = place name near Batu Caves in Selangor) (24)
|Burung Kepudang Kuduk-hitam
'black-naped oriole (bird)'
|Oriolus tenuirostris||Slender-billed oriole
Loriot à bec effilé
|Chim Vàng anh lưng xám
'grey-backed yellow oriole (bird)' (33)
|Chim Vàng anh mỏ nhỏ
'small-billed yellow oriole (bird)' (from Cites list on Internet)
'narrow-billed yellow oriole'
minami kōrai uguisu
'southern Korean warbler'
nók kʰa-mîn pàak-riaw
Popularly, the Thai name นกขมิ้น nók kʰa-mîn 'turmeric-bird' refers to yellow birds without regard to their scientific classification, including orioles, ioras, and even pet canaries. In ornithological Thai นกขมิ้น nók kʰa-mîn 'turmeric-bird' is used for the orioles and นกขมิ้นน้อย nók kʰa-mîn nóaay 'little turmeric-bird' is used for the ioras.
Danh Lục Chim Việt Nam (In lần thứ hai) (Checklist of the Birds of Vietnam) Võ Quý, Nguyễn Cử, Nhà Xuất Bản Nông Nghiệp, Hà Nội 1999
Chim Việt Nam Nguyễn Cử, Lê Trọng Trải, Karen Phillipps; Nhà Xuất Bản Lao Động - Xã Hội, 2000
Senarai Nama-nama Burung Semenanjung Malaysia dan Asia Tenggara by Ismail, Abdul Rahman, Perhilitan (Jabatam Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara, Semenanjung Malaysia), Kuala Lumpur 1981
(List of the Names of Birds of Peninsular Malaysia and Southeast Asia by Ismail, Abdul Rahman, Department of Wildlife and National Parks, Peninsular Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 1981)
A Field Guide to the Birds of West Malaysia and Singapore by Jeyarajasingam, Allen and Alan Pearson, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1999
Danh Lục Các Loài Chim ở Việt Nam (Latinh, Việt, Pháp, Hán) Trần Văn Chánh 2008-2009