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Alaudidae
Богширгынхон
bogshirgiŋkhoŋ

百灵科
bǎi-líng kē

百靈科
bǎi-líng kē

ヒバリ科
hibari ka

종다리과
jongdari-gwa

Toygargiller

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General

This list is 'in beta'. Information is from dictionaries and other sources. Kazakh, Turkish, and Korean glosses are tentative. Comments and corrections welcome. Hover over Green Lettering Green lettering at this site hides a tool tip with glosses, further explanations, etc. Hover cursor to reveal. to see additional information.

Mongolian has a number of words for larks, and usage is unusually confused, with very apparent regional variation. Some names are closely related to a complex of words beginning with б b that are used for sparrows and other small passerines. The notes below are tentative in nature.

1. Болжмор boljmor (in Russian Buryat Булжамуур buljamuur) is a generic name for the larks in Mongolia. However, Inner Mongolian dictionaries translate Болжмор boljmor as Chinese què, where què is a very broadly defined term for small birds, most notably the sparrows.

2. Another name used for the larks is Жиргэмэл jiregmel (related to the verb жиргэх jirgekh 'to chirp, twitter, tweet'). In Russian Buryat this is spelt Жэргэмэл jeregmel.

3. Other names given in ordinary dictionaries appear to be also used for other types of bird, or have been assigned by ornithologists to other types of bird. One is божрог bojrog, which some dictionaries enigmatically give as a name for what appear to be buntings and 'larks with blue feathers'. This has the variants Божирго boj'rog, and Богширго bogshirog. The latter name also appears to be used for the sparrows.

4. The sand larks are called Бялзуумар byalzuumar in the earlier scientific lists, a name reminiscent of both Болжмор boljmor 'lark' and Бялзуухай byalzuukhai 'finch', both of which can also be used as general names for small passerines.

5. A name given by some dictionaries as an alternative to Богширго bogshirog is Хилжиргэнэ khiljirgen.

6. The term Ажиндар ajindar originally referred to a kind of lark but is now applied by ornithologists to the Marsh Warblers.

7. The term Хөхөө xöxöö, usually meaning 'cuckoo', also appears to be used in some parts of Inner Mongolia.

Ornithological naming

The Mongolian ornithological names were originally based on just two names: Бялзуумар byalzuumar for the sand larks (Calendrella) and Болжмор boljmor for the rest. This changed in the 2007 "binomial-style" official list, which, in an attempt to give each genus a separate name, pressed several alternatives into service.

1. Жиргэмэл jiregmel replaced Бялзуумар byalzuumar for the genus Calendrella (some of which are now partly reassigned to the genus Alaudala) and Бялзуумар byalzuumar was reassigned to the Treecreeper (Certhiidae).

2. Болжмор boljmor was restricted to the genus Melanocorypha (of which one member was reassigned to Alauda). Эвэртболжмор evert-boljmor 'crested lark' was assigned to Eremophila (horned or shore larks).

3. The genus Alauda was assigned the name Богширго bogshirog and the the genus Galerida received the closely related name Божирго bojirg.

The species list below contains several problematic descriptors, including Цагаалиг tsagaalig, which has the meaning 'water caltrop' but here means whitish (from цагаан tsagaaŋ) and Харалдай kharaldai, which is related to the colour black (хар khar). Боролзой borolzoi, which means 'tansy' (Tanacetum vulgare), is more often seen in the form боролдой boroldoi when referring to Alauda arvensis and is probably related to the colour brown (бор bor, normally glossed at this site as 'dun').

Inner Mongolian names

Inner Mongolian ornithological usage is somewhat heterogeneous.

1. Хайргацай khairagtsai is used for a couple of species (in Galerida , Eremophila, and Melanocorypha). The name is defined in Mongolian dictionaries as 'a type of finch that is slightly larger than a lark with yellow-brown coloration of the body, reddish back, and whitish breast, that eats insect pests of grain crops and chirps copiously'. One dictionary gives Хайргацай болжмор khairagtsai boljmor for the Crested Lark (Galerida cristata).

2. Жиргэмэл jiregmel, Болжмор boljmor, and Богширго bogshirag are also used as names for Calandrella and Alauda larks.

In the more recent Inner Mongolian names:

a) A couple of names (Calandrella brachydactyla and Alaudala cheleensis) have been taken direct from the Mongolian list.

b) Болжмор boljmor has been dropped as a name for larks and is now used exclusively for passerids.

Species names

› ABOUT THIS TABLE‹
SCIENTIFIC & WESTERN
MONGOLIAN
EAST ASIAN
TURKIC
Alaudala
Latin
English/Russian
Mongolian
Inner M
Other M
Chinese
Japanese
Korean
Kazakh
Turkish
Alaudala cheleensis
Calandrella cheleensis
link to photo
Asian short-toed lark
Mongolian short-toed lark
Salt-marsh lark

Солончаковый жаворонок
Дэрсний жиргэмэл
ᠳᠡᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠢᠮᠡᠯ
dersni jiregmel
'feather-grass lark'
Calandrella cheleensis:
Өчүүхэн богширго
ᠦᠴᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠭᠱᠣᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ
öchüükheŋ bogshorg
'tiny lark' (33)
or
Дэрсний жиргэмэл
ᠳᠡᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠢᠮᠡᠯ
dersni jiregmel
'feather-grass lark' (33)
Mongolia formerly:
Дэрсний бялзуумар
ᠳᠡᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠢᠯᠵᠣᠣᠮᠠᠷ
dersni byalzuumar
'feather-grass byalzuumar'
短趾百灵
(短趾百靈)
duǎn-zhǐ bǎi-líng
'short-toed hundred-spirit' (1, 2, 3, 4)
亚洲短趾百灵
(亞洲短趾百靈)
yàzhōu duǎn-zhǐ bǎi-líng
'Asian short-toed hundred-spirit' (5. alt in 1, 3)
Taiwan:
(亚洲短趾百灵)
亞洲短趾百靈
yàzhōu duǎn-zhǐ bǎi-líng
'Asian short-toed hundred-spirit'
アジアコヒバリ
(アジア小雲雀)
ajia ko-hibari
'Asian small lark' (hibari written 'cloud sparrow')
북방쇠종다리
bukbang-soe-jongdari 'northern small lark'
Сор бозторғайы
sor boz-torğayı
saltmarsh dun-sparrow'
Asya Kısaparmaklı Toygarı
'Asian short-toed lark'
Alaudala rufescens
Calandrella rufescens
Lesser short-toed lark

Серый жаворонок
Орог жиргэмэл
ᠣᠷᠣᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠢᠮᠡᠯ
orog jiregmel
'brown-grey lark'
  Mongolia formerly:
Орог бор бялзуумар
ᠣᠷᠣᠭ ᠪᠣᠷᠣ ᠪᠢᠯᠵᠣᠣᠮᠠᠷ
orog bor byalzuumar
'brown-grey dun byalzuumar'
小短趾百灵
(小短趾百靈)
xiǎo duǎn-zhǐ bǎi-líng
'small short-toed hundred-spirit'
コヒバリ
(小雲雀)
ko-hibari
'small lark' (hibari written 'cloud sparrow')
  Сұр бозторғай
sur boz-torğay
'grey dun-sparrow'
Çorak Toygarı
'barren lark'
Melanocorypha
Latin
English/Russian
Mongolian
Inner M
Other M
Chinese
Japanese
Korean
Kazakh
Turkish
Melanocorypha yeltoniensis
link to photolink to photo
Black lark

Черный жаворонок
Харалдай болжмор
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠯᠳᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠣᠮᠣᠷ
kharaldai boljmor
'kharaldai lark' (khar is probably 'black')
    黑百灵
(黑百靈)
hēi bǎi-líng
'black hundred-spirit'
クロコウテンシ
(黒告天子)
kuro kōtenshi
'black tell-heaven'
  Қара бозторғай
qara boz-torğay
'black dun-sparrow'
Kara Toygar
'black lark'
Melanocorypha mongolica
link to photo
Mongolian lark
Mongolian skylark

Монгольский жаворонк
Монгол болжмор
ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠣᠮᠣᠷ
moŋgol boljmor
'Mongolian lark'
Монгол хайргацай
ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠠᠢᠢᠷᠠᠭᠣᠴᠠᠢ
moŋgol khairagtsai
'Mongolian lark' (31, 33)

蒙古百灵
(蒙古百靈)
měnggǔ bǎi-líng
'Mongolian hundred-spirit'
or
百灵
(百靈)
bǎi-líng
'hundred-spirit' (alt in 1, 3)
コウテンシ
(告天子)
kōtenshi
'tell-heaven'
     
Calandrella
Latin
English/Russian
Mongolian
Inner M
Other M
Chinese
Japanese
Korean
Kazakh
Turkish
Calandrella brachydactyla
link to photo
Greater short-toed lark
Calandrella cinerea:
Малый жаворонок
Calandrella cinerea:
Талын жиргэмэл
ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠢᠮᠡᠯ
taliŋ jiregmel
'plains lark'
Богширго
ᠪᠣᠭᠱᠣᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ
bogshorg
'lark' (33)
or
Талын жиргэмэл
ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠢᠮᠡᠯ
taliŋ jiregmel
'lark' (33)
Mongolia formerly:
Бялзуумар
ᠪᠢᠯᠵᠣᠣᠮᠠᠷ
byalzuumar
'byalzuumar'
IM also:
Охор хуруут богширго
ᠣᠬᠣᠷ ᠬᠣᠷᠣᠭᠣᠲᠣ ᠪᠣᠭᠱᠣᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ
okhor khuruut bogshorg
'short-toed lark' (31)
大短趾百灵
(大短趾百靈)
dà duǎn-zhǐ bǎi-líng
'large short-toed hundred-spirit' (2, 3, 4)
短趾百灵
(短趾百靈)
duǎn-zhǐ bǎi-líng
'short-toed hundred-spirit' (1, 5. alt in 3)
›Taxonomy‹
Taiwan:
(大短趾百灵)
大短趾百靈
dà duǎn-zhǐ bǎi-líng
'large short-toed hundred-spirit'
ヒメコウテンシ
(姫告天子)
hime kōtenshi
'princess tell-heaven'
쇠종다리
soe-jongdari
'small lark'
Calandrella cinerea:
Кіші бозторғай
kişi boz-torğay
'small dun-sparrow'
Bozkır Toygarı
'steppe lark'
Eremophila
Latin
English/Russian
Mongolian
Inner M
Other M
Chinese
Japanese
Korean
Kazakh
Turkish
Eremophila alpestris
link to photo
Horned lark
or
Shore lark

Рогатый жаворонок
Шоорон эвэртболжмор
ᠱᠣᠣᠷᠣᠩ ᠡᠪᠡᠷᠲᠣ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠣᠮᠣᠷ
shooroŋ evert-boljmor
'pointed horned-lark'
Эвэрт хайргацай
ᠡᠪᠡᠷᠲᠦ ᠬᠠᠢᠢᠷᠠᠭᠣᠴᠠᠢ
evert khairagtsai
'horned lark' (31, 33)
Mongolia formerly:
Шоорон алаг болжмор
ᠱᠣᠣᠷᠣᠩ ᠠᠯᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠣᠮᠣᠷ
shooroŋ alag boljmor
'pointed motley lark'
角百灵
(角百靈)
jiǎo bǎi-líng
'horned hundred-spirit'
ハマヒバリ
(浜雲雀)
hama hibari
'shore lark' (hibari written 'cloud sparrow')
  Құлақты бозторғай
qulaqtı boz-torğay
'eared dun-sparrow'
Kulaklı Toygar
'eared lark'
Alauda
Latin
English/Russian
Mongolian
Inner M
Other M
Chinese
Japanese
Korean
Kazakh
Turkish
Alauda leucoptera
Melanocorypha leucoptera
link to photolink to photo
White-winged lark

Белокрылый жаворонк
Цагаалиг болжмор
ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠣᠮᠣᠷ
tsagaalig boljmor
'water-caltrop ? lark' (tsagaa more likely refers to 'white')
    白翅百灵
(白翅百靈)
bái-chì bǎi-líng
'white-winged hundred-spirit'
ハジロコウテンシ
(羽白告天子)
ha-jiro kōtenshi
'white-winged tell-heaven'
  Аққанат бозторғай
aq-qanat boz-torğay
'white-winged dun-sparrow'
Akkanatlı Toygar
'white-winged lark'
Alauda arvensis
link to photolink to photolink to photo
Eurasian Sky Lark
Eurasian Skylark
Skylark
Northern skylark

Полевой жаворонок
Боролзой богширго
ᠪᠣᠷᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠭᠱᠣᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ
borolzoi bogshirаg
'tansy bogshirаg'
Жиргэмэл
ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠢᠮᠡᠯ
jiregmel
'lark' (31, 33)
or
Дуут богширго
ᠳᠠᠭᠣᠳᠣ ᠪᠣᠭᠱᠣᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ
duut bogshirag
'calling bogshirag' (31, 33)
Mongolia formerly:
Боролзой болжмор
ᠪᠣᠷᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠣᠮᠣᠷ
borolzoi boljmor
'tansy lark'
Other:
Боролдой болжмор
ᠪᠣᠷᠣᠯᠳᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠣᠮᠣᠷ
boroldoi boljmor
'brown lark'
IM also:
Гуа болжмор
ᠭᠣᠣ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠣᠮᠣᠷ
gua boljmor
'beautiful boljmor' (alt in 31)
云雀
(雲雀)
yún-què
'cloud sparrow'
›Taxonomy‹
Taiwan:
(欧亚云雀)
歐亞雲雀
ōu-yà yún-què
'Eurasian cloud sparrow'
ヒバリ
(雲雀)
hibari
'lark' written 'cloud sparrow'
›Taxonomy‹
종다리
jongdari
'lark'
›Taxonomy‹
Шабындық бозторғайы
şabındıq boz-torğayı
'hay dun-sparrow'
Tarlakuşu
'field bird'
Galerida
Latin
English/Russian
Mongolian
Inner M
Other M
Chinese
Japanese
Korean
Kazakh
Turkish
Galerida cristata
link to photo
Crested lark

Хохлатый жаворонок
Согсоот божирго
ᠰᠣᠭᠰᠣᠭᠠᠲᠣ ᠪᠣᠭᠱᠣᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ
sogsoot bojirog
'horned bojirg'
Өвөгт хайргацай
ᠦᠪᠦᠭᠲᠦ ᠬᠠᠢᠢᠷᠠᠭᠣᠴᠠᠢ
övögt khairagtsai
'crested lark' (31, 33)
or
Номхон бор
ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠷᠣ
nomkhoŋ bor
'quiet bor' (33)
Mongolia formerly:
Согсоот болжмор
ᠰᠣᠭᠰᠣᠭᠠᠲᠣ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠣᠮᠣᠷ
sogsoot boljmor
'horned lark'

Other:
Хайргацай болжмор
ᠬᠠᠢᠢᠷᠠᠭᠣᠴᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠣᠮᠣᠷ
khairagtsai boljmor
'lark lark'
凤头百灵
(鳳頭百靈)
fèng-tóu bǎi-líng
'phoenix-headed hundred-spirit'
カンムリヒバリ
(冠雲雀)
kanmuri hibari
'crested lark' (hibari written 'cloud sparrow')
뿔종다리
ppul-jongdari
'horned lark'
Айдарлы бозторғай
aydarlı boz-torğay
'crested dun-sparrow'
Tepeli Toygar
'crested lark'

Монгол хэлний дэлгэрэнгүй тайлбар толь: Болжмороос томхон, бие нь шар хүрэн өнгөтэй, ар нь улаавтархан, өвчүү цагаавтархан, тариалангийн хорт шавжийг идэж устгадаг, ихэд жиргэдэг нэгэн зүилийн бялзуухай.

Боролзой borolzoi means 'tansy' (Tanacetum vulgare), but in many ordinary dictionaries (both IM and M) the bird name is listed as Боролдой болжмор boroldoi boljmor. The name possibly has to do with the bird's brown or dun (бор bor) coloration.

Some sources differentiate Alauda arvensis japonica as a separate species, known as:
日本云雀
(日本雲雀)
rìběn yún-què
'Japanese cloud sparrow' (in 2, 3, and 4).

Some sources differentiate Alauda arvensis japonica as a separate species, known as:
ニホンヒバリ
(日本雲雀)
nihon hibari
'Japanese lark' (hibari written 'cloud sparrow') (Internet sources)
Other than Alauda arvensis japonica, subspecies of A. arvensis are オオヒバリ ō hibari (large skylark) for A. a. pekinensis and カラフトチュウヒバリ Karafuto chū-hibari (Sakhalin medium skylark) for A. a. lonnbergi.

Some sources differentiate Alauda arvensis japonica as a separate species, known as:
극동종다리
geuk-dong-jongdari
'far-eastern lark'

Бор bor as an adjective means either 'grey, brown, dun', or 'stubborn'. It is used in some bird names as a noun, including names for the nightjars, reed warblers, Reed Parrotbill, and leiothrix. The common thread is unclear, and the meaning likely differs according to the bird, with nightjars possibly being regarded as 'stubborn', and others as being 'small brownish birds'.

中国鸟类种和亚种分类名录大全(修订版) 郑作新 著 科学出版社 北京 2000年
A Complete Checklist of Species and Subspecies of the Chinese Birds (Revised Edition) by Cheng Tso-Hsin, Science Press, Beijing 2000

中国鸟类分类与分布名录 主编:郑光美 科学出版社 北京 2005年
A Checklist on the Classification and Distribution of the Birds of China Chief editor: Zheng Guangmei, Science Press, Beijing 2005

中国鸟类野外手册(中文版)约翰・马敬能、卡伦・菲利普斯,合作者:荷芬奇,翻译:卢和芬 湖南教育出版社 长沙 2000年
A Field Guide to the Birds of China (Chinese translation) by John MacKinnon, Karen Phillipps, in collaboration with He Fen-qi, translated by Lu Hefen, Hunan Jiaoyu Chubanshe (Hunan Educational Press) Changsha 2000

世界鸟类分类与分布名录 主编:郑光美 科学出版社 北京 2002年
A Checklist on the Classification and Distribution of the Birds of the World Chief editor: Zheng Guangmei, Science Press, Beijing 2002

世界鸟类名称(拉丁文、汉文、英文对照)第二版 郑作新等 科学出版社 北京 2002年
Birds of the World (Latin, Chinese and English Names) 2nd ed. by Cheng Tso-Hsin et al, Science Press, Beijing 2002

汉蒙名词术语分类词典(自然科学部分) Mongolian (Cyrillic): Хятад Монгол нэр томъёоны зүйл хуваасан толь (байгалийн шинжлэх ухааны бүлэг) (Chinese-Mongolian classified terminological dictionary, natural sciences part) by 《汉蒙名词术语分类词典》编纂委员会 Mongolian (Cyrillic): "Хятад Монгол нэр томъёоны зүйл хуваасан толь" найруулах комисс (Chinese-Mongolian classified terminological dictionary editorial committee), Inner Mongolian People's Press, Hohhot 1990

内蒙古动物志 (第四卷 鸟纲 雀形目) Fauna Inner Mongolia (Volume 4 Aves Passerines), 主编:旭日干 (Chief Editor: Xurigan), 内蒙古人大学版社 (Inner Mongolian University Press), Hohhot 2015