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Alaudidae
百灵科
bǎi-líng kē

百靈科
bǎi-líng kē

ヒバリ科
hibari ka

종다리과
jongdari-gwa

Họ Sơn ca

Богширгынхон
bogshirgiŋkhoŋ

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General

Information is from dictionaries and other sources. Pinyin reflects Mandarin pronunciation; for some dialect names, it is no more than a polite fiction. Korean glosses are tentative. Comments and corrections welcome. Hover over Green Lettering Green lettering at this site hides a tool tip with glosses, further explanations, etc. Hover cursor to reveal. to see additional information.

The larks are most commonly known as 百灵 bǎi-líng (sometimes 百灵鸟 bǎi-líng-niǎo), literally meaning 'hundred spirit' or 'hundred clever'. This, along with 云雀 yún-què (literally 'cloud sparrow'), which is used for larks in the genus Alauda, is both the most popular name and the general ornithological name of the larks. But there are several groups of traditional and dialect names for members of the family.

1. The first is the group that 百灵 bǎi-líng belongs to. These names use the word or spirit, possibly due to the popular belief that a skylark is the soul of a person who has returned from the dead. This is found in the expression: 死了变成白灵鸟,飞来也要卯亲亲 sǐ le biàn-chéng bái-líng-niǎo, fēi-lái yě yào mǎo qīnqīn 'Becomes a skylark after death; when it flies back it comes to visit relatives'. In some areas such as Inner Mongolia, 百灵 bǎi líng 'hundred spirit' is transformed into 白灵 bái líng 'white spirit', giving rise to related names like 白灵灵 bái líng-líng 'white spirit-spirit' and 白灵鸟 bái líng-niǎo 'white spirit bird'. 百灵 bǎi líng 'hundred spirit' has also been written 百翎, 'hundred plume', treating líng as 'plume or feather'. This is a very literate folk etymology.

2. A large number of names (including 云雀 yún-què) refer to the skylark's habit of singing while rapidly flying straight up, which makes it look as if the bird is calling to the sky. These include: 朝天柱 cháo tiān zhù 'towards heaven pillar'; 告天鸟 gào tiān niǎo 'tell heaven bird'; 告天子 gào tiān zǐ 'tell heaven'; 告天知 gào tiān zhī 'tell heaven know'; 叫天鸟 jiào tiān niǎo 'call heaven bird'; 叫天雀 jiào tiān què 'call heaven sparrow/finch'; 叫天子 jiào tiān zǐ 'call heaven'; 天鸟 tiān niǎo 'heaven bird'; and 噪天 zào tiān 'noisy/chirp to heaven'.

3. A third name is liù, which in ancient sources referred to a young bird or chick, but by early modern times was used for the larks. 天鹨 tiān liù is found in the Wuti Qingwen Jian (五体清文鉴 wǔtǐ qīngwén jiàn, originally published 1805) with the meaning 'lark'. was also used by the Japanese to write the word ヒバリ hibari 'lark'. Related terms include 阿鹨 ā-liù and 阿兰 ā-làn. The earliest ornithological list of Chinese names, Chinese Birds (35) in 1927, used liù for both the larks and the visually extremely similar pipits (Motacillidae), reflecting either Japanese or Chinese usage, or both. Despite traditional usage, modern ornithological lists use liù exclusively for the pipits.

Species names

› ABOUT THIS TABLE‹
SCIENTIFIC & ENGLISH
CHINESE
EAST
SOUTH
NORTH
Mirafra
Latin
English
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Mongolian
Mirafra javanica
link to photolink to photo
Horsfield's Lark
Horsfield's Bushlark
Australasian lark
Singing bush lark
Eastern singing bush lark
歌百灵
(歌百靈)
gē bǎi-líng
'song hundred-spirit'
›Taxonomy‹
    ヤブヒバリ
(薮雲雀)
yabu-hibari
'thicket skylark'
  Chim Sơn ca Java
'Javanese son ca bird' (ca = 'sing') (12, 13, 34)
 
Alaudala
Latin
English
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Mongolian
Alaudala cheleensis
Calandrella cheleensis
link to photo
Asian short-toed lark
Mongolian short-toed lark
Salt-marsh lark
短趾百灵
(短趾百靈)
duǎn-zhǐ bǎi-líng
'short-toed hundred-spirit' (1, 2, 3, 4)
or
亚洲短趾百灵
(亞洲短趾百靈)
yàzhōu duǎn-zhǐ bǎi-líng
'Asian short-toed hundred-spirit' (5. alt in 1, 3)
(亚洲短趾百灵)
亞洲短趾百靈
yàzhōu duǎn-zhǐ bǎi-líng
'Asian short-toed hundred-spirit'
华北沙鹨
(華北沙鷚)
huá-běi shā-liù
'north China sand-lark' (early ornithological) (35)
アジアコヒバリ
(アジア小雲雀)
ajia ko-hibari
'Asian small lark' (hibari written 'cloud sparrow')
북방쇠종다리
bukbang-soe-jongdari 'northern small lark'
  Дэрсний жиргэмэл
ᠳᠡᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠢᠮᠡᠯ
dersni jiregmel
'feather-grass lark'
Inner M:
Өчүүхэн богширго
ᠦᠴᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠭᠱᠣᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ
öchüükheŋ bogshorg
'tiny lark' (33)
or
Дэрсний жиргэмэл
ᠳᠡᠷᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠢᠮᠡᠯ
dersni jiregmel
'feather-grass lark' (33)
Melanocorypha
Latin
English
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Mongolian
Melanocorypha bimaculata
link to photolink to photo
Bimaculated lark
Eastern calandra lark
二斑百灵
(二斑百靈)
èr-bān bǎi-líng
'two-stripe hundred-spirit'
    クビワコウテンシ
(首輪告天子)
kubi-wa kōtenshi
'neck-ringed tell-heaven'
큰부리종다리
keun-buri-jongdari
'large-billed lark'
   
Melanocorypha calandra
link to photolink to photolink to photo
Calandra lark 草原百灵
(草原百靈)
cǎo-yuán bǎi-líng
'grass plain hundred-spirit'
    クロエリコウテンシ
(黒襟告天子)
kuro-eri kōtenshi
'black-collared tell-heaven'
     
Melanocorypha yeltoniensis
link to photolink to photo
Black lark 黑百灵
(黑百靈)
hēi bǎi-líng
'black hundred-spirit'
    クロコウテンシ
(黒告天子)
kuro kōtenshi
'black tell-heaven'
    Харалдай болжмор
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠯᠳᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠣᠮᠣᠷ
kharaldai boljmor
'kharaldai lark' (khar is probably 'black')
Melanocorypha maxima
link to photo
Tibetan lark
Long-billed calandra lark
长嘴百灵
(長嘴百靈)
cháng-zuǐ bǎi-líng
'long-billed hundred-spirit'
  长嘴鹨
(長嘴鷚)
cháng-zuǐ liù
'long-billed lark' (early ornithological) (35)
オオコウテンシ
(大告天子)
ō kōtenshi
'large tell-heaven'
     
Melanocorypha mongolica
link to photo
Mongolian lark
Mongolian skylark
蒙古百灵
(蒙古百靈)
měnggǔ bǎi-líng
'Mongolian hundred-spirit'
or
百灵
(百靈)
bǎi-líng
'hundred-spirit' (alt in 1, 3)
  百灵
(百靈)
bǎi-líng
'hundred spirit' (general name) (35)
蒙古鹨
(蒙古鷚)
měnggǔ liù
'Mongolian lark' (early ornithological) (35)
コウテンシ
(告天子)
kōtenshi
'tell-heaven'
    Монгол болжмор
ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠣᠮᠣᠷ
moŋgol boljmor
'Mongolian lark'
Inner M:
Монгол хайргацай
ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠠᠢᠢᠷᠠᠭᠣᠴᠠᠢ
moŋgol khairagtsai
'Mongolian lark' (31, 33)
Calandrella
Latin
English
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Mongolian
Calandrella acutirostris
link to photo
Hume's short-toed lark
Hume's lark
Karakoram Short-toed lark
细嘴短趾百灵
(細嘴短趾百靈)
xì-zuǐ duǎn-zhǐ bǎi-líng
'fine-billed short-toed hundred-spirit'
    ヒマラヤコヒバリ
(ヒマラヤ小雲雀)
himaraya ko-hibari
'Himalayan small lark' (hibari written 'cloud sparrow')
     
Calandrella brachydactyla
link to photo
Greater short-toed lark 大短趾百灵
(大短趾百靈)
dà duǎn-zhǐ bǎi-líng
'large short-toed hundred-spirit' (2, 3, 4)
or
短趾百灵
(短趾百靈)
duǎn-zhǐ bǎi-líng
'short-toed hundred-spirit' (1, 5. alt in 3)
›Taxonomy‹
(大短趾百灵)
大短趾百靈
dà duǎn-zhǐ bǎi-líng
'large short-toed hundred-spirit'
短趾沙百灵
(短趾沙百靈)
duǎn-zhǐ shā bǎi-líng
'short-toed sand hundred-spirit' (6, 7)
红短趾鹨
(紅短趾鷚)
hóng duǎn-zhǐ liù
'red short-toed lark' (early ornithological) (35)
白眉
(白眉)
bái-méi
'white eyebrow'
ヒメコウテンシ
(姫告天子)
hime kōtenshi
'princess tell-heaven'
쇠종다리
soe-jongdari
'small lark'
  Calandrella cinerea:
Талын жиргэмэл
ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠢᠮᠡᠯ
taliŋ jiregmel
'plains lark'
Inner M:
Богширго
ᠪᠣᠭᠱᠣᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ
bogshorg
'lark' (33)
or
Талын жиргэмэл
ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠢᠮᠡᠯ
taliŋ jiregmel
'lark' (33)
IM also:
Охор хуруут богширго
ᠣᠬᠣᠷ ᠬᠣᠷᠣᠭᠣᠲᠣ ᠪᠣᠭᠱᠣᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ
okhor khuruut bogshorg
'short-toed lark' (31)
Eremophila
Latin
English
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Mongolian
Eremophila alpestris
link to photo
Horned lark
or
Shore lark
角百灵
(角百靈)
jiǎo bǎi-líng
'horned hundred-spirit'
  滨鹨
(濱鷚)
bīn liù
'shore lark' (35, from Zool. Nomen.)
获敬德
(獲敬德)
huò-jìng-dé
'huojingde' (northern) (35)
陆地百灵
(陸地百靈)
lùdì bǎi-líng
'land hundred-spirit'
土画眉
(土畫眉)
tǔ huà-méi
'earth/vulgar hwamei' (also Garrulax perspicillatus Masked Laughing-thrush)
ハマヒバリ
(浜雲雀)
hama hibari
'shore lark' (hibari written 'cloud sparrow')
    Шоорон эвэртболжмор
ᠱᠣᠣᠷᠣᠩ ᠡᠪᠡᠷᠲᠣ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠣᠮᠣᠷ
shooroŋ evert-boljmor
'pointed horned-lark'
Inner M:
Эвэрт хайргацай
ᠡᠪᠡᠷᠲᠦ ᠬᠠᠢᠢᠷᠠᠭᠣᠴᠠᠢ
evert khairagtsai
'horned lark' (31, 33)
Alauda
Latin
English
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Mongolian
Alauda leucoptera
Melanocorypha leucoptera
link to photolink to photo
White-winged lark 白翅百灵
(白翅百靈)
bái-chì bǎi-líng
'white-winged hundred-spirit'
    ハジロコウテンシ
(羽白告天子)
ha-jiro kōtenshi
'white-winged tell-heaven'
    Цагаалиг болжмор
ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠣᠮᠣᠷ
tsagaalig boljmor
'water-caltrop ? lark' (tsagaa more likely refers to 'white')
Alauda arvensis
link to photolink to photolink to photo
Eurasian Sky Lark
Eurasian Skylark
Skylark
Northern skylark
云雀
(雲雀)
yún-què
'cloud sparrow'
›Taxonomy‹
(欧亚云雀)
歐亞雲雀
ōu-yà yún-què
'Eurasian cloud sparrow'
阿鹨儿
(阿鷚兒)
ā-liùr
'lark' (northern) (35)
叫天子儿
(叫天子兒)
jiào-tiānzǐr
'call heaven' (northern) (35)
告天知
(告天知)
gào-tiānzhǐ
'tell heaven know' (southern) (35)
大鹨
(大鷚)
dà liù
'large lark' (35, from Zool. Nomen.)
鱼鳞燕
(魚鱗燕)
yú-lín yàn
'fish-scaled swallow'
ヒバリ
(雲雀)
hibari
'lark' written 'cloud sparrow'
›Taxonomy‹
종다리
jongdari
'lark'
›Taxonomy‹
  Боролзой богширго
ᠪᠣᠷᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠭᠱᠣᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ
borolzoi bogshirаg
'tansy bogshirаg'
Inner M:
Жиргэмэл
ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠢᠮᠡᠯ
jiregmel
'lark' (31, 33)
or
Дуут богширго
ᠳᠠᠭᠣᠳᠣ ᠪᠣᠭᠱᠣᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ
duut bogshirag
'calling bogshirag' (31, 33)
IM also:
Гуа болжмор
ᠭᠣᠣ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠣᠮᠣᠷ
gua boljmor
'beautiful lark' (31)
Alauda gulgula
link to photo
Oriental Sky Lark
Oriental Skylark
Lesser skylark
Small skylark
小云雀
(小雲雀)
xiǎo yún-què
'small cloud sparrow'
(小云雀)
小雲雀
xiǎo yún-què
'small cloud sparrow'
小阿勒
(小阿勒)
xiǎo ā-lè
'small a-le'
タイワンヒバリ
(台湾雲雀)
taiwan hibari
'Taiwan lark' (hibari written 'cloud sparrow')
  Chim Sơn ca
'son ca bird' (ca = 'sing') (12, 13, 34)
 
Galerida
Latin
English
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Mongolian
Galerida cristata
link to photo
Crested lark 凤头百灵
(鳳頭百靈)
fèng-tóu bǎi-líng
'phoenix-headed hundred-spirit'
  華北凤头鹨
(华北鳳頭鷚)
huá-běi fèng-tóu liù
'north Chinese phoenix-headed lark' (early ornithological) (35)
角领鸟
(角領鳥)
jiǎo-lǐng niǎo
'horn collar bird' (southern) (35)
凤头阿鹨儿
(鳳頭阿鷚兒)
fèng-tóu ā-liùr
'phoenix-headed lark' (northern) (35)
阿兰
(阿蘭)
ā-lán
'a-lan'
大阿勒
(大阿勒)
dà ā-lè
'large a-le'
风头
(鳳頭)
fèng-tóu
'phoenix-head'
カンムリヒバリ
(冠雲雀)
kanmuri hibari
'crested lark' (hibari written 'cloud sparrow')
뿔종다리
ppul-jongdari
'horned lark'
  Согсоот божирго
ᠰᠣᠭᠰᠣᠭᠠᠲᠣ ᠪᠣᠭᠱᠣᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ
sogsoot bojirog
'horned bojirg'
Inner M:
Өвөгт хайргацай
ᠦᠪᠦᠭᠲᠦ ᠬᠠᠢᠢᠷᠠᠭᠣᠴᠠᠢ
övögt khairagtsai
'crested lark' (31, 33)
or
Номхон бор
ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠷᠣ
nomkhoŋ bor
'quiet bor' (33)

Боролзой borolzoi means 'tansy' (Tanacetum vulgare), but in many ordinary dictionaries (both IM and M) the bird name is listed as Боролдой болжмор boroldoi boljmor. The name possibly has to do with the bird's brown or dun (бор bor) coloration.

Some sources differentiate Alauda arvensis japonica as a separate species, known as:
日本云雀
(日本雲雀)
rìběn yún-què
'Japanese cloud sparrow' (in 2, 3, and 4).

Some sources differentiate Alauda arvensis japonica as a separate species, known as:
ニホンヒバリ
(日本雲雀)
nihon hibari
'Japanese lark' (hibari written 'cloud sparrow') (Internet sources)
Other than Alauda arvensis japonica, subspecies of A. arvensis are オオヒバリ ō hibari (large skylark) for A. a. pekinensis and カラフトチュウヒバリ Karafuto chū-hibari (Sakhalin medium skylark) for A. a. lonnbergi.

Some sources differentiate Alauda arvensis japonica as a separate species, known as:
극동종다리
geuk-dong-jongdari
'far-eastern lark'

Бор bor as an adjective means either 'grey, brown, dun', or 'stubborn'. It is used in some bird names as a noun, including names for the nightjars, reed warblers, Reed Parrotbill, and leiothrix. The common thread is unclear, and the meaning likely differs according to the bird, with nightjars possibly being regarded as 'stubborn', and others as being 'small brownish birds'.

中国鸟类种和亚种分类名录大全(修订版) 郑作新 著 科学出版社 北京 2000年
A Complete Checklist of Species and Subspecies of the Chinese Birds (Revised Edition) by Cheng Tso-Hsin, Science Press, Beijing 2000

中国鸟类分类与分布名录 主编:郑光美 科学出版社 北京 2005年
A Checklist on the Classification and Distribution of the Birds of China Chief editor: Zheng Guangmei, Science Press, Beijing 2005

中国鸟类野外手册(中文版)约翰・马敬能、卡伦・菲利普斯,合作者:荷芬奇,翻译:卢和芬 湖南教育出版社 长沙 2000年
A Field Guide to the Birds of China (Chinese translation) by John MacKinnon, Karen Phillipps, in collaboration with He Fen-qi, translated by Lu Hefen, Hunan Jiaoyu Chubanshe (Hunan Educational Press) Changsha 2000

世界鸟类分类与分布名录 主编:郑光美 科学出版社 北京 2002年
A Checklist on the Classification and Distribution of the Birds of the World Chief editor: Zheng Guangmei, Science Press, Beijing 2002

世界鸟类名称(拉丁文、汉文、英文对照)第二版 郑作新等 科学出版社 北京 2002年
Birds of the World (Latin, Chinese and English Names) 2nd ed. by Cheng Tso-Hsin et al, Science Press, Beijing 2002

(6)
中国鸟类分布名录 第二版 郑作新 科学出版社 北京 1976年
(Checklist of the Classification of Birds of China 2nd edition by Cheng Tso-Hsin, Science Press, Beijing 1976)

香港及華南鳥類(第六版)(翻譯成中文及重新修訂) 尹璉、費嘉倫、林超英 香港性徵特區政府新聞處政府印務局 1994年
Birds of Hong Kong and South China (6th edition, translated into Chinese and newly revised) by Clive Viney, Karen Phillipps, Lin Chaoying, Hong Kong Govt. Press 1994

Danh Lục Chim Việt Nam (In lần thứ hai) (Checklist of the Birds of Vietnam) Võ Quý, Nguyễn Cử, Nhà Xuất Bản Nông Nghiệp, Hà Nội 1999

Chim Việt Nam Nguyễn Cử, Lê Trọng Trải, Karen Phillipps; Nhà Xuất Bản Lao Động - Xã Hội, 2000

汉蒙名词术语分类词典(自然科学部分) Mongolian (Cyrillic): Хятад Монгол нэр томъёоны зүйл хуваасан толь (байгалийн шинжлэх ухааны бүлэг) (Chinese-Mongolian classified terminological dictionary, natural sciences part) by 《汉蒙名词术语分类词典》编纂委员会 Mongolian (Cyrillic): "Хятад Монгол нэр томъёоны зүйл хуваасан толь" найруулах комисс (Chinese-Mongolian classified terminological dictionary editorial committee), Inner Mongolian People's Press, Hohhot 1990

Chim Việt Nam Nguyễn Cử, Lê Trọng Trải, Karen Phillipps; Nhà Xuất Bản Lao Động - Xã Hội, 2000

内蒙古动物志 (第四卷 鸟纲 雀形目) Fauna Inner Mongolia (Volume 4 Aves Passerines), 主编:旭日干 (Chief Editor: Xurigan), 内蒙古人大学版社 (Inner Mongolian University Press), Hohhot 2015

Danh Lục Các Loài Chim ở Việt Nam (Latinh, Việt, Pháp, Hán) Trần Văn Chánh 2008-2009

Chinese Birds (A Tentative List of Chinese Birds) 中國鳥類(中國鳥類目錄試編) N. Gist Gee, Lacy I. Moffett, G. D. Wilder (祁天錫, 慕維德, 萬卓志), Peiping, 1927 (reprinted 1948)