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Accipitridae
タカ科
taka ka

鹰科
yīng kē

鷹科
yīng kē

수리과
suri-gwa

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General

Information is from dictionaries and other sources. Species list may not be current. Korean glosses are tentative. Comments and corrections welcome. Hover over Green Lettering Green lettering at this site hides a tool tip with glosses, further explanations, etc. Hover cursor to reveal. to see additional information.

In Japanese, there are fairly well established distinctions between eagles, hawks, and other birds in the Accipitrinae. The largest birds (eagles) are called ワシ washi (written ). The smaller raptors are called タカ taka (written ). In a narrow sense, タカ taka refers specifically to the Accipiters or 'true hawks'. The Northern Sparrowhawk is known as ハイタカ hai-taka (written ), the local Japanese Sparrowhawk as ツミ tsumi (written 雀鷹 or 雀鷂).

The kites are known as トビ tobi (written , also pronounced トンビ tonbi), the buzzards are known as ノスリ nosuri (written , a character that in Chinese originally referred to a owl or nightjar -- the Japanese usage is an innovation), the buzzard-eagles are known as サシバ sashiba (written 差羽), and the vultures are known as ハゲワシ hage-washi 'bald eagles' (written 禿鷲), or more popularly ハゲタカ hage-taka (禿鷹) 'bald hawk'.

The ornithological names in Japanese are:

Genus Name
Pernis (Honey Buzzards) ハチクマ hachi-kuma 'bee bear'
Milvus (Kites) トビ tobi
Haliaeetus (Sea Eagles) ワシ washi
Aegypius (Vulture) ハゲワシ hage-washi 'bald-eagle'
Spilornis (Snake Eagle) ワシ washi
Circus (Harriers) チュウヒ chūhi
Accipiter (Hawks) タカ taka, ツミ tsumi
Butastur (Buzzard) サシバ sashiba
Buteo (Buzzards) ノスリ nosuri
Aquila (Eagles) ワシ washi
Spizaetus (Hawk Eagles) クマタカ kuma-taka 'bear hawk'

CULTURAL

The word タカ taka 'hawk' is used in Japanese in the sense of 'warlike hardliner', a usage borrowed from English. Such people are known as 鷹派 taka-ha or 'hawk faction'.

In haiku, taka is a season word for winter.

The Japanese expression 鵜の目鷹の目 u no me taka no me 'eyes of a cormorant, eyes of a hawk' refers to looking for something with sharp or keen eyes.

A well-known expression in Japanese is 能ある鷹は爪を隠す nō aru taka wa tsume o kakusu, meaning 'A hawk with ability hides its talons'. A person with truly formidable talents, great ability, or great power does not show them off to get attention. They are brought out only when needed. Can be used as an exhortation, or as praise for a person who quietly listens while others loudly expound their shallow knowledge.

The expression 鳶に油揚げをさらわれる tonbi ni abura-age o sarawareru 'to have fried tofu snatched by a kite' means to have something valuable snatched away from before one's eyes.

Species names

› ABOUT THIS TABLE‹
GYPAETINAE
SCIENTIFIC & WESTERN
JAPANESE
CHINESE
KOREAN
PERNINI
Pernis
Latin
Eng, Fr, Ger, Ru
Japanese
Other J
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Korean
Pernis ptilorhynchus
link to photo
Oriental honey buzzard
Oriental honey-buzzard
Crested honey buzzard
Eurasian Honey Buzzard

Bondrée orientale
Schopfwespenbussard
Хохлатый осоед
ハチクマ
(蜂角鷹 ~ 蜂熊)
hachi-kuma
'bee bear'
  凤头蜂鹰
(鳳頭蜂鷹)
fèng-tóu fēng-yīng
'phoenix-headed bee-hawk'
(东方蜂鹰)
東方蜂鷹
dōngfāng fēng-yīng
'eastern bee-hawk'
Taiwan formerly:
(头鹰)
鵰頭鷹
diāo-tóu-yīng
'eagle-headed hawk' (31)
八角鹰
(八角鷹)
bā-jiǎo-yīng
'eight-horned hawk'
蜜鹰
(蜜鷹)
mì-yīng
'honey hawk'
蜂鹰
(蜂鷹)
fēng-yīng
'bee-hawk' (31)

(蜂鵟)
mì-kuáng
'honey buzzard'
벌매
beol-mae
'bee-hawk'
 
ACCIPITRINAE
SCIENTIFIC & WESTERN
JAPANESE
CHINESE
KOREAN
CIRCAETINI
Spilornis
Latin
Eng, Fr, Ger, Ru
Japanese
Other J
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Korean
Spilornis cheela
link to photo
Crested serpent eagle
Crested serpent-eagle

Serpentaire bacha
Schlangenweihe
Большой хохлатый змееяд,
Хохлатый змееяд
カンムリワシ
(冠鷲)
kanmuri washi
'crested eagle'
 
(蛇鵰)
shé-diāo
'snake-eagle'
(大冠鹫)
大冠鷲
dà guān-jiù
'large crested vulture''
凤头蛇
(鳳頭蛇鵰)
fèng-tóu shé-diāo
'phoenix-headed snake-eagle'
凤头捕蛇
(鳳頭捕蛇鵰)
fèng-tóu bǔ-shé-diāo
'phoenix-headed catch-snake-eagle'
横髻山
(橫髻山鵰)
héng-jì shān-diāo
'cross hair-bun mountain eagle'
白腹蛇
bái-fù shé-diāo
'white-bellied snake-eagle'
麻鹰
(麻鷹)
má yīng
'hemp hawk'
관수리
gwan-suri
'crested eagle'
GYPINI
Aegypius
Latin
Eng, Fr, Ger, Ru
Japanese
Other J
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Korean
Aegypius monachus
link to photo
Cinereous vulture
Monk vulture
Black vulture

Vautour moine
Mönchsgeier
Черный гриф,
Бурый гриф
クロハゲワシ
(黒禿鷲)
kuro hage-washi
'black bald-eagle'
  秃鹫
(禿鷲)
tū-jiù
'bald-vulture'
(秃鹫)
禿鷲
tū-jiù
'bald-vulture'
狗头
(狗頭鵰)
gǒu-tóu-diāo
'dog-headed eagle'
坐山
(坐山雕)
zuò-shān-diāo
'sit mountain eagle'
독수리
dok-suri
'dok eagle' (meaning of dok unclear)
ACCIPITRINI
Nisaetus
Latin
Eng, Fr, Ger, Ru
Japanese
Other J
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Korean
Nisaetus nipalensis
Spizaetus nipalensis
link to photo
Mountain Hawk Eagle
Mountain Hawk-eagle
Hodgson's hawk eagle

Aigle montagnard
Nepalhaubenadler,
Bergadler
Хохлатый орел
Spizaetus nipalensis:
クマタカ
(熊鷹)
kuma-taka
'bear hawk'
  Spizaetus nipalensis:

(鹰鵰)
yīng-diāo
'hawk eagle'
Spizaetus nipalensis:
(熊鹰)
熊鷹
xióng-yīng
'bear hawk'
赫氏角鹰
(赫氏角鷹)
hè-shì jiǎo yīng
'Mr He's horned hawk'
뿔매
ppul-mae
'horned hawk'
Clanga
Latin
Eng, Fr, Ger, Ru
Japanese
Other J
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Korean
Clanga clanga
Aquila clanga
link to photolink to photo
Greater spotted eagle
Spotted eagle

Aigle criard
Schelladler
Большой подорлик
Aquila clanga:
カラフトワシ
(樺太鷲)
karafuto washi
'Sakhalin eagle'
  Aquila clanga:

(烏鵰)
wū-diāo
'dark eagle'
Aquila clanga:
()
花鵰
huā-diāo
'flowery eagle'
小花皂
(小花皂鵰)
xiǎo huā-zào-diāo
'small flowery black eagle'

(團鵰)
tuán-diāo
'ball eagle'

(黑鵰)
hēi-diāo
'black eagle'
항라머리검독수리
hangna-meori-geom-dok-suri
'gauze-headed golden dok eagle'
Aquila
Latin
Eng, Fr, Ger, Ru
Japanese
Other J
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Korean
Aquila heliaca
link to photolink to photo
Eastern imperial eagle
Imperial eagle

Aigle impérial
Östliche Kaiseradler
Орёл-моги́льник
カタシロワシ or
カタジロワシ
(肩白鷲)
kata-shiro washi or kata-jiro washi
'white-shouldered eagle'
  白肩
(白肩鵰)
bái-jiān diāo
'white-shouldered eagle'
(白肩)
白肩鵰
bái-jiān diāo
'white-shouldered eagle'

(御鵰)
yù diāo
'imperial eagle'
흰죽지수리
huin-jukji-suri
'white wing-joint eagle'
Aquila chrysaetos
link to photolink to photo
Golden eagle

Aigle royal
Steinadler
Беркут
イヌワシ
(犬鷲)
inu-washi
'dog eagle'
 
(金鵰)
jīn diāo
'gold eagle'
 
(企鵰)
qǐ-diāo
'standing eagle'

(老鵰)
lǎo-diāo
'old eagle'

(鷲鵰)
jiù-diāo
'vulture eagle' (鹫/鷲 is traditionally used for both eagles and vultures)
洁白
(潔白鵰)
jié-bái diāo
'pure white eagle'

(紅鵰)
hóng diāo
'red eagle'
红头
(紅頭鵰)
hóng tóu diāo
'red-headed eagle'
金脖
(金脖鵰)
jīn-bó diāo
'gold-necked eagle'
검독수리
geom-dok-suri
'golden dok eagle'
Circus
Latin
Eng, Fr, Ger, Ru
Japanese
Other J
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Korean
Circus spilonotus
link to photo
Eastern marsh harrier
Eastern marsh-harrier

Busard d'Orient
Mangroveweihe
Азиатский лунь
チュウヒ
(沢鵟)
chūhi
'harrier' (written 'marsh buzzard')
  白腹鹞
(白腹鷂)
bái-fù yào
'white-bellied harrier' (鷂 yào traditionally refers to sparrow hawks)
(东方泽鹞)
東方澤鷂
dōngfāng zé-yào
'eastern marsh harrier (鷂 yào traditionally refers to sparrow hawks)
Taiwan formerly:
()
澤鵟
zé-kuáng
'marsh-buzzard'
泽鹞
(澤鷂)
zé yào
'marsh sparrowhawk' (alt in 7)
白尾巴根子
(白尾巴根子)
bái-wěibā gēnzi
'white tail root'
개구리매
gaeguri-mae
'frog-hawk'
Circus cyaneus
link to photolink to photo
Hen harrier
or
Northern harrier

Busard Saint-Martin
Kornweihe
Полевой лунь
ハイイロチュウヒ
(灰色沢鵟)
hai-iro chūhi
'grey harrier' (chūhi written 'marsh-buzzard')
  白尾鹞
(白尾鷂)
bái-wěi yào
'white-tailed harrier' (鷂 yào traditionally refers to sparrow hawks)
(灰泽)
灰澤鵟
huī zé-kuáng
'grey marsh-buzzard'
白抓
(白抓)
bái zhuā
'white grasp'
灰鹞
(灰鷂)
huī yào
'grey sparrowhawk'
灰鹰
(灰鷹)
huī yīng
'grey hawk'

(雞鵰)
jī-diāo
'fowl eagle'

(雞鵟)
jī-kuáng
'fowl buzzard'
잿빛개구리매
jaetbit-gaeguri-mae
'grey-coloured frog-hawk'
Circus melanoleucos
link to photolink to photo
Pied harrier

Busard tchoug
Elsterweihe
Пегий лунь
マダラチュウヒ
(斑沢鵟)
madara chūhi
'pied harrier' (chūhi written 'marsh buzzard')
  鹊鹞
(鵲鷂)
què-yào
'magpie sparrowhawk'
(花泽)
花澤鵟
huā zé-kuáng
'flowery marsh-buzzard'
喜鹊鹰
(喜鵲鷹)
xǐ-què yīng
'magpie hawk'
客鹊鹰
(客鵲鷹)
kè-què yīng
'magpie hawk'
客鹊鹞
(客鵲鷂)
kè-què yào
'magpie sparrowhawk'
黑白花
(黑白花鵟)
hēi-bái huā kuáng
'black (&) white flowery buzzard'
알락개구리매
allak-gaeguri-mae
'speckled frog-hawk'
Accipiter
Latin
Eng, Fr, Ger, Ru
Japanese
Other J
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Korean
Accipiter soloensis
link to photolink to photo
Chinese Sparrowhawk
Chinese Goshawk
Grey frog hawk
Horsfield's goshawk

Épervier de Horsfield
Froschsperber
Короткопалый ястреб
アカハラダカ
(赤腹鷹)
aka-hara-daka
'red-bellied hawk'
  赤腹鹰
(赤腹鷹)
chì-fù yīng
'red-bellied hawk'
(赤腹鹰)
赤腹鷹
chì-fù yīng
'red-bellied hawk'
鹅鹰
(鵝鷹)
é-yīng
'goose hawk'
红鼻排鲁鹞
(紅鼻排魯鷂)
hóng-bí páilǔ yào
'red-nosed pailu sparrowhawk'
鲁鹞
(魯鷂)
lǔ yào
'Shandong sparrowhawk'
붉은배새매
bulgeun-bae-sae-mae
'red-bellied bird hawk'
Accipiter gularis
link to photo
Japanese Sparrowhawk
Japanese sparrow hawk
Japanese lesser sparrow hawk

Épervier du Japon Trillersperber
Малый перепелятник
ツミ
(雀鷹 ~ 雀鷂)
tsumi
'tsumi', written 'sparrow hawk' or 'sparrow sparrowhawk'
エッサイ
(悦哉)
essai (male)
日本松雀鹰
(日本松雀鷹)
rìběn sōng-què-yīng
'Japanese pine sparrow-hawk' (2, 3, 4, 5)
›Taxonomy‹
(日本松雀鹰)
日本松雀鷹
rìběn sōng-què-yīng
'Japanese pine sparrow-hawk'
  조롱이
jorongi
'sparrowhawk'
Accipiter nisus
link to photolink to photo
Eurasian Sparrowhawk
Northern sparrow hawk
Sparrow hawk


Épervier d'Europe
Sperber
Перепелятник,
Ястреб-перепелятник,
Малый ястреб
ハイタカ
()
hai-taka
'sparrowhawk'
  雀鹰
(雀鷹)
què-yīng
'sparrow hawk'
(北雀鹰)
北雀鷹
běi què-yīng
'northern sparrow hawk'

()
yào
'sparrowhawk'
鹞子
(鷂子)
yàozi
'sparrowhawk' (dial.)
鹞鹰
(鷂鷹)
yào-yīng
'sparrowhawk hawk'
老鹰
(老鷹)
lǎo-yīng
'old hawk' (also means 'kite')
老鹞鹰
(老鷂鷹)
lǎo yào-yīng
'old sparrowhawk hawk'
细胸
(細胸)
xì-xiōng
'thin chest'
摩鹰
(摩鷹)
mó-yīng
'rub hawk' (northern)
朵子
(朵子)
duǒzi
'duozi' (southern)
来鸠
(來鳩)
lái-jiū
'lai pigeon' (literary) (see also Butastur indicus)
爽鸠
(爽鳩)
shuǎng- jiū
'cool pigeon'

()
chī
'hawk' (classical)
새매
sae-mae
'bird hawk'
Accipiter gentilis
link to photolink to photo
Northern goshawk
Goshawk

Autour des palombes
Habicht
Тетеревятник,
Ястреб-тетеревятник
オオタカ
(大鷹)
ō taka
'large hawk'
  苍鹰
(蒼鷹)
cāng-yīng
'darkblue hawk'
(苍鹰)
蒼鷹
cāng-yīng
'darkblue hawk'
黄鹰
(黃鷹)
huáng-yīng
'yellow hawk'
鸡鹰
(雞鷹)
jī-yīng
'fowl/chicken hawk'
鹞鹰
(鷂鷹)
yào-yīng
'sparrowhawk hawk' (also means 'sparrow hawk', 'kite')
芽鹰
(芽鷹)
yá-yīng
'bud hawk'
참매
cham-mae
'sparrow hawk'
Haliaeetus
Latin
Eng, Fr, Ger, Ru
Japanese
Other J
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Korean
Haliaeetus albicilla
link to photo
White-tailed sea eagle
White-tailed eagle

Pygargue à queue blanche
Seeadler
Орлан-долгохвост
オジロワシ
(尾白鷲)
o-jiro washi
'white-tailed eagle'
  白尾海
(白尾海鵰)
bái-wěi hǎi-diāo
'white-tailed sea-eagle'
(白尾海)
白尾海鵰
bái-wěi hǎi-diāo
'white-tailed sea-eagle'
Taiwan formerly:
(白尾鷲)
白尾鷲
bái-wěi jiù
'white-tailed vulture''
白尾
(白尾鵰)
bái-wěi diāo
'white-tailed eagle'
洁白
(潔白鵰)
jié-bái diāo
'pure/clean white eagle' (also Golden Eagle)
芝麻
(芝麻鵰)
zhīmá diāo
'sesame eagle'
흰꼬리수리
huin-kkori-suri
'white-tailed eagle'
Haliaeetus pelagicus
link to photo
Steller's sea eagle
Steller's sea-eagle
Kamchatkan sea eagle

Pygargue empereur
Riesenseeadler,
Meeradler
Белоплечий орлан
オオワシ
(大鷲)
ō-washi
'large eagle'
  虎头海
(虎頭海鵰)
hǔ-tóu hǎi-diāo
'tiger-headed sea-eagle'
  虎头
(虎頭鵰)
hǔ-tóu diāo
'tiger-headed eagle'
참수리
cham-suri
'true eagle'
Milvus
Latin
Eng, Fr, Ger, Ru
Japanese
Other J
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Korean
Milvus migrans
link to photo
Black kite

Milan noir
Schwarzmilan
Коршун черный
トビ
()
tobi
'kite'
トンビ
()
tonbi
'kite'
黑鸢
(黑鳶)
hēi yuān
'black kite'
or

()
yuān
'kite' (alt in 1, 5)
(黑鸢)
黑鳶
hēi yuān
'black kite'
Taiwan formerly:
(老鹰)
老鷹
lǎo-yīng
'old hawk'
›Taxonomy‹
老鸢
(老鳶)
lǎo yuān
'old kite' (southern)
鹞鹰
(鷂鷹)
yào-yīng
'sparrowhawk hawk' (inf) (also means 'sparrow hawk', 'goshawk')
额力也
(額力也)
élìyě
eliye (from Mongolian элээ)
(regional - northeast)
솔개
solgae
'solgae'
›Taxonomy‹
Butastur
Latin
Eng, Fr, Ger, Ru
Japanese
Other J
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Korean
Butastur indicus
link to photo
Grey-faced buzzard
Grey-faced buzzard eagle

Busautour à joues grises
Kiefernteesa,
Graugesichtbussard
Ястребиный сарыч
サシバ
(差羽 ~ )
sashi-ba
'buzzard-eagle'
  灰脸
(灰臉鵟鷹)
huī-liǎn kuáng-yīng
'grey-faced buzzard-hawk'
(灰面)
灰面鵟鷹
huī-miàn kuáng-yīng
'grey-faced buzzard-hawk'
Taiwan formerly:
(灰面鹫)
灰面鷲
huī miàn jiù
'grey-faced vulture''
来鸟鸠
(來鳥鳩)
lái-niǎo-jiū
'come bird pigeon?'
屎鹰
(屎鷹)
shǐ-yīng
'dung hawk'
三春鹞
(三春鷂)
sān-chūn-yào
'three spring sparrowhawk'
왕새매
wang-sae-mae
'king bird hawk'
Buteo
Latin
Eng, Fr, Ger, Ru
Japanese
Other J
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Korean
Buteo lagopus
link to photolink to photo
Rough-legged Buzzard
or
Rough-legged Hawk

Buse pattue
Rauhfußbussard
Зимняк
オオケアシノスリ
(大毛足鵟)
ō ke-ashi nosuri
'large hair-legged buzzard'
  毛脚
(毛腳鵟)
máo-jiǎo kuáng
'hair-legged buzzard'
(毛足)
毛足鵟
máo-zú kuáng
'hair-legged buzzard'
  털발말똥가리
teol-bal-malttonggari
'fur-footed buzzard'
Buteo buteo
link to photo
Eurasian buzzard
Common buzzard
Buzzard

Buse variable
Mäusebussard
Канюк обыкновенный,
Сарыч
ノスリ
()
nosuri
'buzzard'
クソトビ
(糞鳶)
kuso-tobi
'dung kite'
普通
(普通鵟)
pǔtōng kuáng
'common buzzard'
()

kuáng
'buzzard'
土豹
(土豹)
tǔ-bào
'dirt panther'
鶙鵳
(鶙鵳)
tíjiān
'tijian'
鸡姆鹞
(雞母鷂)
jī mǔ yào
'fowl mother sparrowhawk'
말똥가리
malttonggari
'buzzard'
Buteo hemilasius
link to photo
Upland buzzard

Buse de Chine
Mongolenbussard,
Hochlandbussard
Мохноногий курганник
オオノスリ
(大鵟)
ō nosuri
'large buzzard'
 
(大鵟)
dà kuáng
'large buzzard'
()
大鵟
dà kuáng
'large buzzard'
豪豹
(豪豹)
háo-bào
'bold panther'
花豹
(花豹)
huā-bào
'flowery panther'
白路豹
(白路豹)
bái-lù-bào
'white road (bailu) panther' (cf Accipiter soloensis)
큰말똥가리
keun-malttonggari
'large buzzard'

The word ハチクマ hachi-kuma literally 'bee-bear' is written in Chinese characters as 1. 蜂角鷹 'bee horned hawk' or 2. 蜂熊 'bee bear'.

The distinction between 'eagle' and 'vulture' in Chinese is a relatively recent one. The character is traditionally used for both eagles and vultures.

The etymology of サシバ sashiba' is unknown. In Chinese characters it is usually written 1) 差羽, where the verb 差す sasu has a very broad range of meanings, including 'to point', and , here read ba, means 'wing' or 'feather', or 2) , an ancient Chinese raptor name.

中国鸟类种和亚种分类名录大全(修订版) 郑作新 著 科学出版社 北京 2000年
A Complete Checklist of Species and Subspecies of the Chinese Birds (Revised Edition) by Cheng Tso-Hsin, Science Press, Beijing 2000

中国鸟类分类与分布名录 主编:郑光美 科学出版社 北京 2005年
A Checklist on the Classification and Distribution of the Birds of China Chief editor: Zheng Guangmei, Science Press, Beijing 2005

中国鸟类野外手册(中文版)约翰・马敬能、卡伦・菲利普斯,合作者:荷芬奇,翻译:卢和芬 湖南教育出版社 长沙 2000年
A Field Guide to the Birds of China (Chinese translation) by John MacKinnon, Karen Phillipps, in collaboration with He Fen-qi, translated by Lu Hefen, Hunan Jiaoyu Chubanshe (Hunan Educational Press) Changsha 2000

世界鸟类分类与分布名录 主编:郑光美 科学出版社 北京 2002年
A Checklist on the Classification and Distribution of the Birds of the World Chief editor: Zheng Guangmei, Science Press, Beijing 2002

世界鸟类名称(拉丁文、汉文、英文对照)第二版 郑作新等 科学出版社 北京 2002年
Birds of the World (Latin, Chinese and English Names) 2nd ed. by Cheng Tso-Hsin et al, Science Press, Beijing 2002

香港及華南鳥類(第六版)(翻譯成中文及重新修訂) 尹璉、費嘉倫、林超英 香港性徵特區政府新聞處政府印務局 1994年
Birds of Hong Kong and South China (6th edition, translated into Chinese and newly revised) by Clive Viney, Karen Phillipps, Lin Chaoying, Hong Kong Govt. Press 1994

汉蒙名词术语分类词典(自然科学部分) Mongolian (Cyrillic): Хятад Монгол нэр томъёоны зүйл хуваасан толь (байгалийн шинжлэх ухааны бүлэг) (Chinese-Mongolian classified terminological dictionary, natural sciences part) by 《汉蒙名词术语分类词典》编纂委员会 Mongolian (Cyrillic): "Хятад Монгол нэр томъёоны зүйл хуваасан толь" найруулах комисс (Chinese-Mongolian classified terminological dictionary editorial committee), Inner Mongolian People's Press, Hohhot 1990