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Rallidae
Түнжүүрийнхэн
tüŋjüüriŋkheŋ

秧鸡科
yāng-jī kē

秧雞科
yāng-jī kē

クイナ科
kuina ka

뜸부기과
tteumbugi-gwa

Yelvegiller

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General

This list is 'in beta'. Information is from dictionaries and other sources. Kazakh, Turkish, and Korean glosses are tentative. Comments and corrections welcome. Hover over Green Lettering Green lettering at this site hides a tool tip with glosses, further explanations, etc. Hover cursor to reveal. to see additional information.

The rails are known in Mongolia as Түнжүүр tüŋjüür, a term which appears to be related to the word түнжгэр tüŋjger meaning 'bald'. Түнжүүр tüŋjüür is not found in most dictionaries and likely reflects ornithological rather than common usage.

The Moorhen (and the Watercock) are known as Доголон ханчир dogoloŋ khaŋchir 'limping moorhen'. Since ханчир khaŋchir also means 'withered arm' in Mongolian, the name literally means 'limping leg withered arm'.

In Inner Mongolian dictionaries, Ханчир khaŋchir is used as a general name for the rails, and the Waterhen is known as Шалбаа ханчир shalbaa khaŋchir 'marsh khanchir'. Another Inner Mongolian name for the rails is Тарач тахиа tarach takhia 'tarach fowl'.

The Coot is known in Mongolian as the Халзан шувуу khalzaŋ shuvuu 'bald-foreheaded bird'. In Inner Mongolia it is known as Харгууна kharguun 'coot'.

Ornithological naming

In the 2007 list of Mongolian birds, each genus has its own name. Түнжүүр tüŋjüür is retained for the Water Rail (Rallus) and the Common Moorhen is given the name Ханчир khaŋchir.

The rest of the family is named with what seem to be artificial variations on Түнжүүр tüŋjüür.

Genus Inner M old Inner M Old New
Porzana (Crakes) Inner M old:
Ханчир
khanchir
Inner M:
Ханчир
khanchir
Mongolia formerly:
Түнжүүр
tüŋjüür
Түнжгэр
tüŋjger
'bald'
Rallus (Rail) Inner M old:
Ханчир
khanchir
Inner M:
Ханчир
khanchir
Mongolia formerly:
Түнжүүр
tüŋjüür
Түнжүүр
tüŋjüür
Crex (Corn Crake) - - Mongolia formerly:
Түнжүүр
tüŋjüür
Түнжйн
tüŋjiŋ
'bald'
Amaurornis (Waterhen) Inner M old:
Ханчир
khanchir
or
Тарач
tarach-
- Mongolia formerly:
Түнжүүр
tüŋjüür
Түнжүүхэй
tüŋjüükhei
Gallinula (Moor Hen) Inner M old:
Харгууна
kharguun
Inner M:
Харгууна
kharguun
Mongolia formerly:
Түнжүүр
tüŋjüür
Ханчир
khaŋchir
Fulica (Coot) Inner M old:
Харгууна
kharguun
Inner M:
Харгууна
kharguun
Mongolia formerly:
Түнжүүр
tüŋjüür
Түнжүү
tüŋjüü

Two of these names are listed in ordinary dictionaries and quite literally mean 'bald' (at the front). Two other names, not found in ordinary dictionaries, are variations on Түнжүүр tüŋjüür, one formed through omission of the final consonant (Түнжүү tüŋjüü), one through omission of the final consonant and addition of an extra syllable (Түнжүүхэй tüŋjüükhei).

Species names

› ABOUT THIS TABLE‹
RALLINAE
SCIENTIFIC & WESTERN
MONGOLIAN
EAST ASIAN
TURKIC
Coturnicops
Latin
English/Russian
Mongolian
Inner M
Other M
Chinese
Japanese
Korean
Kazakh
Turkish
Coturnicops exquisitus
Porzana exquisita
link to photo
Swinhoe's rail
Swinhoe's crake
Swinhoe's yellow rail

Белокрылый погоныш
Porzana exquisita:
Бичилхэн түнжгэр
ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠯᠬᠡᠨ ᠲᠦᠨᠵᠢᠭᠡᠷ
bichilkheŋ tüŋjger
'small rail (variant form)'
Цагаан далавчит ханчир
ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠪᠴᠢᠲᠣ ᠬᠠᠨᠴᠢᠷ
tsagaaŋ dalavchit khanchir
'white-winged rail' (32)
Mongolia formerly:
Бичилхэн түнжүүр
ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠯᠬᠡᠨ ᠲᠦᠨᠵᠢᠭᠦᠷ
bichilkheŋ tüŋjüür
'small rail'
花田鸡
(花田雞)
huā tián-jī
'flowery paddy-fowl/chicken'
シマクイナ
(縞秧鶏 ~ 縞水鶏)
shima kuina
'striped rail'
알락뜸부기
allak-tteumbugi
'spotted rail'
   
Rallus
Latin
English/Russian
Mongolian
Inner M
Other M
Chinese
Japanese
Korean
Kazakh
Turkish
Rallus indicus
link to photo
Eastern Water Rail
Brown-cheeked Rail

Пастушок
Rallus aquaticus:
Усны түнжүүр
ᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠦᠨᠵᠢᠭᠦᠷ
usni tüŋjüür
'water rail'
Rallus aquaticus:
Ханчир
ᠬᠠᠨᠴᠢᠷ
khanchir
'rail' (31, 32)
Mongolia formerly:
Түнжүүр
ᠲᠦᠨᠵᠢᠭᠦᠷ
tüŋjüür
'rail'
Rallus aquaticus:
普通秧鸡
(普通秧雞)
pǔtōng yāng-jī
'common seedling-fowl/chicken'
Rallus aquaticus indicus:
东北亚种
(東北亞種)
dōng-běi yàzhǒng
'Northeastern (Manchurian) subspecies' (1)
Taiwan:
(秧鸡)
秧雞
yāng-jī
'seedling-fowl/chicken'
Rallus aquaticus:
クイナ
(秧鶏 ~ 水鶏)
kuina
'rail'
흰눈썹뜸부기
huin-nunsseop-tteumbugi
'white-eyebrowed rail'
   
Crex
Latin
English/Russian
Mongolian
Inner M
Other M
Chinese
Japanese
Korean
Kazakh
Turkish
Crex crex
link to photo
link to photo
Corncrake
Corn crake

Коростель
Явган түнжйн
ᠶᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠦᠨᠵᠢᠨ
yavgaŋ tüŋjiŋ
'walking rail (variant form)'
  Mongolia formerly:
Тариан түнжүүр
ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠲᠦᠨᠵᠢᠭᠦᠷ
tariaŋ tüŋjüür
'grain rail'
长脚秧鸡
(長腳秧雞)
cháng-jiǎo yāng-jī
'long-legged seedling-fowl/chicken'
ウズラクイナ
(鶉秧鶏 ~ 鶉水鶏)
uzura kuina
'quail rail'
  Шәукілдек
şäwkildek
'crake'
Bıldırcın Kılavuzu
'quail rail'
Porzana
Latin
English/Russian
Mongolian
Inner M
Other M
Chinese
Japanese
Korean
Kazakh
Turkish
Porzana porzana
link to photo
Spotted crake

Погоныш
Тоодон түнжгэр
ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠳᠣᠩ ᠲᠦᠨᠵᠢᠭᠡᠷ
toodoŋ tünjger
'short rail (variant form)'
  Mongolia formerly:
Тоодон түнжүүр
ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠳᠣᠩ ᠲᠦᠨᠵᠢᠭᠦᠷ
toodoŋ tüŋjüür
'short rail'
斑胸田鸡
(斑胸田雞)
bān-xiōng tián-jī
'stripe-breasted paddy-fowl/chicken'
Taiwan:
(斑胸田鸡)
斑胸田雞
bān-xiōng tián-jī
'stripe-breasted paddy-fowl/chicken'
コモンクイナ
(小紋水鶏 ~ 小紋秧鶏)
komon kuina
'fine-patterned rail'
  Тартар
tartar
'rail'
Benekli Sutavuğu
'spotted water-fowl'
Benekli Suyelvesi
'spotted water-cock'
Zapornia
Latin
English/Russian
Mongolian
Inner M
Other M
Chinese
Japanese
Korean
Kazakh
Turkish
Zapornia pusilla
Porzana pusilla
link to photo
Baillon's crake

Погоныш-крошка
Оодон түнжгэр
ᠣᠭᠣᠳᠣᠩ ᠲᠦᠨᠵᠢᠭᠡᠷ
oodoŋ tünjger
'short rail (variant form)'
Бяцхан ханчир
ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠬᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠨᠴᠢᠷ
byatskhan khanchir
'little rail' (31, 32)
Mongolia formerly:
Оодон түнжүүр
ᠣᠭᠣᠳᠣᠩ ᠲᠦᠨᠵᠢᠭᠦᠷ
oodoŋ tüŋjüür
'short rail'
小田鸡
(小田雞)
xiǎo tián-jī
'small paddy-fowl/chicken'
Taiwan:
(小秧鸡)
小秧雞
xiǎo yāng-jī
'small seedling-fowl/chicken'
ヒメクイナ
(姫水鶏 ~ 姫秧鶏)
hime kuina
'princess rail'
쇠뜸부기
soe-tteumbugi
'small rail'
Титтей тартар
tïttey tartar
'tiny rail'
Küçük Sutavuğu
'small water-fowl'
Küçük Suyelvesi
'small water-cock'
Amaurornis
Latin
English/Russian
Mongolian
Inner M
Other M
Chinese
Japanese
Korean
Kazakh
Turkish
Amaurornis phoenicurus
link to photo
White-breasted waterhen
White-breasted water hen

Белогрудый погоныш
Цагааномруут түнжүүхэй
ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠣᠮᠣᠷᠣᠣᠲᠣ ᠲᠦᠨᠵᠦᠭᠡᠬᠡᠢ
tsagaaŋ-omruut tüŋjüükhei
'white-bellied rail (variant form)'
  Inner M:
Шалбаа ханчир
ᠱᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠨᠴᠢᠷ
shalbaa khanchir
'marsh rail' (31)
or
Тарач
ᠲᠠᠷᠠᠴᠢ
tarach
'waterhen' (alt in 31)
白胸苦恶鸟
(白胸苦惡鳥)
bái-xiōng kǔ-è-niǎo
'white-breasted kǔ-è bird' (onomat.)
Taiwan:
(白腹秧鸡)
白腹秧雞
bái-fù yāng-jī
'white-bellied seedling-fowl/chicken'
シロハラクイナ
(白腹秧鶏 ~ 白腹水鶏)
shiro-hara kuina
'white-bellied rail'
흰배뜸부기
huin-bae-tteumbugi
'white-bellied rail'
   
Gallinula
Latin
English/Russian
Mongolian
Inner M
Other M
Chinese
Japanese
Korean
Kazakh
Turkish
Gallinula chloropus
link to photo
Common moorhen
Moorhen
Common gallinule

Камышница
Хажилгат ханчир
ᠬᠠᠵᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠲᠣ ᠬᠠᠨᠴᠢᠷ
khajilgat khaŋchir
'fringed (?) moorhen'
Мэлзэн харгууна
ᠮᠡᠯᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ
melzen kharguun
'bald coot' (31, 32)
Mongolia formerly:
Хажилгат түнжүүр
ᠬᠠᠵᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠲᠣ ᠲᠦᠨᠵᠢᠭᠦᠷ
khajilgat tüŋjüür
'fringed (?) rail'
黑水鸡
(黑水雞)
hēi shuǐ-jī
'black water-fowl/chicken'
or
红骨顶
(紅骨頂)
hóng gǔ-dǐng
'red bone top' (alt in 1, 3, 5)
Taiwan:
(红冠水鸡)
紅冠水雞
hóng-guān shuǐ-jī
'red-crested water-fowl/chicken'
バン
()
ban
'moorhen'
쇠물닭
soe-mul-dalg
'small water-fowl/chicken'
Қызылқасқа сутартар
qızıl-qasqa sw-tartar
'red-eyebrowed water-rail'
Saztavuğu
'reed fowl'
Fulica
Latin
English/Russian
Mongolian
Inner M
Other M
Chinese
Japanese
Korean
Kazakh
Turkish
Fulica atra
link to photolink to photo
Common coot
Eurasian coot
Black coot
Coot

Лысуха
Халзан түнжүү
ᠬᠠᠯᠵᠠᠨ ??
khalzaŋ tüŋjüü
'bald-foreheaded rail (variant form)'
Халзан харгууна
ᠬᠠᠯᠵᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ
khalzaŋ kharguun
'bald-foreheaded coot' (31, 32)
Mongolia formerly:
Халзан түнжүүр
ᠬᠠᠯᠵᠠᠨ ᠲᠦᠨᠵᠢᠭᠦᠷ
khalzaŋ tüŋjüür
'bald-foreheaded rail'
Other:
Халзан шувуу
ᠬᠠᠯᠵᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠪᠠᠭᠣ
khalzaŋ shuvuu
'bald-foreheaded bird'
Харгууна
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ
kharguun
'coot' (Inner Mongolia)
白骨顶
(白骨頂)
bái gǔ-dǐng
'white bone top'
or
骨顶鸡
(骨頂雞)
gǔ-dǐng jī
'bone top fowl' (alt in 1, 3)
Taiwan:
(白冠鸡)
白冠雞
bái-guān jī
'white-crested fowl'
オオバン
(大鷭)
ō ban
'large moorhen'
물닭
mul-dalg
'water-fowl/chicken'
Қасқалдақ
qasqaldak
'coot'
Sakarmeke
'coot'

To write the word クイナ kuina, Japanese simply takes over one of the equivalent Chinese names, 秧雞 'seedling fowl/chicken' or 水雞 'water fowl/chicken'. This practice of reading Chinese compound-words (multi-character words) with single Japanese readings is known as 熟字訓 jukuji-kun.

This onomatopoeic bird name is based on the similarity of the birds' call to the Chinese word 苦恶 kǔ'è 'bitter evil'.

This onomatopoeic bird name is based on the similarity of the birds' call to the Chinese word 苦恶 kǔ'è 'bitter evil'.

中国鸟类种和亚种分类名录大全(修订版) 郑作新 著 科学出版社 北京 2000年
A Complete Checklist of Species and Subspecies of the Chinese Birds (Revised Edition) by Cheng Tso-Hsin, Science Press, Beijing 2000

中国鸟类野外手册(中文版)约翰・马敬能、卡伦・菲利普斯,合作者:荷芬奇,翻译:卢和芬 湖南教育出版社 长沙 2000年
A Field Guide to the Birds of China (Chinese translation) by John MacKinnon, Karen Phillipps, in collaboration with He Fen-qi, translated by Lu Hefen, Hunan Jiaoyu Chubanshe (Hunan Educational Press) Changsha 2000

世界鸟类名称(拉丁文、汉文、英文对照)第二版 郑作新等 科学出版社 北京 2002年
Birds of the World (Latin, Chinese and English Names) 2nd ed. by Cheng Tso-Hsin et al, Science Press, Beijing 2002

汉蒙名词术语分类词典(自然科学部分) Mongolian (Cyrillic): Хятад Монгол нэр томъёоны зүйл хуваасан толь (байгалийн шинжлэх ухааны бүлэг) (Chinese-Mongolian classified terminological dictionary, natural sciences part) by 《汉蒙名词术语分类词典》编纂委员会 Mongolian (Cyrillic): "Хятад Монгол нэр томъёоны зүйл хуваасан толь" найруулах комисс (Chinese-Mongolian classified terminological dictionary editorial committee), Inner Mongolian People's Press, Hohhot 1990

内蒙古动物志 (第三卷 鸟纲 非雀形目) Fauna Inner Mongolia (Volume 3 Aves Non-Passerines) 主编:旭日干 (Chief Editor: Xurigan), 内蒙古人大学版社 (Inner Mongolian University Press), Hohhot 2013