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Coraciidae
佛法僧科
fó-fǎ-sēng kē

佛法僧科
fó-fǎ-sēng kē

ブッポウソウ科
buppōsō ka

파랑새과
parang-sae-gwa

Họ Sả rừng

Эрдэнийншувууныхан
erdniŋ-shuvuunikhaŋ

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General

Information is from dictionaries and other sources. Pinyin reflects Mandarin pronunciation; for some dialect names, it is no more than a polite fiction. Korean glosses are tentative. Comments and corrections welcome. Hover over Green Lettering Green lettering at this site hides a tool tip with glosses, further explanations, etc. Hover cursor to reveal. to see additional information.

China has three species of coraciid belonging to two genera. The most widespread is the Dollarbird Eurystomus orientalis, known as 三宝鸟 sān-bǎo-niǎo 'three jewels bird'. In addition, two Coracias species are found in peripheral areas in Yunnan, Sichuan, and Xinjiang, and are known as 佛法僧 fó-fǎ-sēng 'Buddha-law-monk'.

Both 佛法僧 fó-fǎ-sēng 'Buddha-law-monk' and 三宝鸟 sān-bǎo-niǎo 'three jewels bird' were listed in the seminal Japanese-influenced work Zoological Nomenclature, published in Shanghai in 1923. The name 佛法僧 fó-fǎ-sēng 'Buddha-law-monk' was bestowed on the Dollarbird in Japan, where it was mistakenly believed that its call resembled buppōsō, meaning 'Buddha-law-monk' in Japanese. Only in 1935 was it discovered that the call was actually that of the Scops Owl Otus scops. The alternative name 三宝鸟 sān-bǎo-niǎo, or 'three jewels bird' is simply a twist on the old one, since 三宝 sān-bǎo refers to the 'three jewels' of Buddhism -- namely the Buddha, the law, and the monks.

佛法僧 fó-fǎ-sēng 'Buddha-law-monk' was ornithologically adopted for the Dollarbird and for other coraciid species in China and was used in the name of the family. At some time, however, it was apparently decided to differentiate between genera by using 三宝鸟 sān-bǎo-niǎo'three jewels bird' for the Dollarbird (Eurystomus) and retaining 佛法僧 fó-fǎ-sēng 'Buddha-law-monk' for Coracias.

The earliest proposed ornithological names given in Chinese Birds of 1927 (35) were direct translations of their English names at the time, 东方宽嘴转鸟 dōngfāng kuān-zuǐ zhuǎn-niǎo 'eastern wide-billed rolling bird' for the Eastern Broad-billed Roller (Eurystomus Orientalis) and 缅甸转鸟 miǎndiàn zhuǎn-niǎo 'Burmese rolling bird' for the Burmese Roller (Coracias affinis, now Coracias benghalensis affinis).

The northern folk name, 老鸹翠 lǎo-guā cuì 'crow-kingfisher', identifies the Dollarbird with its close relatives, the kingfishers (Alcedinidae).

Species names

› ABOUT THIS TABLE‹
SCIENTIFIC & ENGLISH
CHINESE
EAST
SOUTH
NORTH
Coracias
Latin
English
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Mongolian
Coracias benghalensis
link to photolink to photo
Indian roller 棕胸佛法僧
(棕胸佛法僧)
zōng-xiōng fó-fǎ-sēng
'reddishbrown-breasted buddha-law-monk'
  缅甸转鸟
(緬甸轉鳥)
miǎndiàn zhuǎn-niǎo
'Burmese rolling bird' (early ornithological) (35)
インドブッポウソウ
(インド仏法僧)
indo buppōsō
'Indian buddha-law-monk'
  Chim Sả rừng
'forest kingfisher (bird)' (12, 34)
 
Coracias garrulus
link to photolink to photo
European roller 蓝胸佛法僧
(藍胸佛法僧)
lán-xiōng fó-fǎ-sēng
'blue-breasted buddha-law-monk'
    ニシブッポウソウ
(西仏法僧)
nishi buppōsō
'western buddha-law-monk'
    Inner M:
Хөх энгэрт мөргөлч
ᠬᠦᠬᠡ ᠡᠩᠭᠡᠷᠲᠦ ᠮᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠴᠢ
khökh eŋgert mörgölch
'darkblue-collared worshipper' (31)
Eurystomus
Latin
English
Chinese
Chinese (Taiwan)
Other Ch
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Mongolian
Eurystomus orientalis
link to photolink to photo
Dollarbird
Eastern broad-billed roller
Broad-billed roller
三宝鸟
(三寶鳥)
sān-bǎo-niǎo
'three jewels bird'
(佛法僧)
佛法僧
fó-fǎ-sēng
'buddha-law-monk'
东方宽嘴转鸟
(東方寬嘴轉鳥)
dōngfāng kuān-zuǐ zhuǎn-niǎo
'eastern wide-billed rolling bird' (early ornithological) (31, 35)
老鸹翠
(老鴰翠)
lǎo-guā cuì
'crow-kingfisher' (northern) (35)
阔嘴鸟
(闊嘴鳥)
kuò-zuǐ-niǎo
'broad-billed bird'
海南了
hāinán liǎo
'Hainan liao' (grackle?)
ブッポウソウ
(仏法僧)
buppōsō
'buddha-law-monk'
파랑새
parang-sae
'blue bird'
Chim Yểng quạ
'raven myna (bird)' (12, 13, 34)
Дорнын эрдэнийншувуу
dorniŋ erdniŋ-shuvuu
'eastern precious bird'
Inner M:
Сүсэгт шувуу
ᠰᠦᠰᠦᠭᠲᠦ ᠰᠢᠪᠠᠭᠣ
süsegt shuvuu
'pious bird' (31, 32)

Danh Lục Chim Việt Nam (In lần thứ hai) (Checklist of the Birds of Vietnam) Võ Quý, Nguyễn Cử, Nhà Xuất Bản Nông Nghiệp, Hà Nội 1999

Chim Việt Nam Nguyễn Cử, Lê Trọng Trải, Karen Phillipps; Nhà Xuất Bản Lao Động - Xã Hội, 2000

汉蒙名词术语分类词典(自然科学部分) Mongolian (Cyrillic): Хятад Монгол нэр томъёоны зүйл хуваасан толь (байгалийн шинжлэх ухааны бүлэг) (Chinese-Mongolian classified terminological dictionary, natural sciences part) by 《汉蒙名词术语分类词典》编纂委员会 Mongolian (Cyrillic): "Хятад Монгол нэр томъёоны зүйл хуваасан толь" найруулах комисс (Chinese-Mongolian classified terminological dictionary editorial committee), Inner Mongolian People's Press, Hohhot 1990

内蒙古动物志 (第三卷 鸟纲 非雀形目) Fauna Inner Mongolia (Volume 3 Aves Non-Passerines) 主编:旭日干 (Chief Editor: Xurigan), 内蒙古人大学版社 (Inner Mongolian University Press), Hohhot 2013

Danh Lục Các Loài Chim ở Việt Nam (Latinh, Việt, Pháp, Hán) Trần Văn Chánh 2008-2009

Chinese Birds (A Tentative List of Chinese Birds) 中國鳥類(中國鳥類目錄試編) N. Gist Gee, Lacy I. Moffett, G. D. Wilder (祁天錫, 慕維德, 萬卓志), Peiping, 1927 (reprinted 1948)