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Ciconiidae
Họ Hạc

鹳科
guàn kē

鸛科
guàn kē

コウノトリ科
kō-no-tori ka

วงศ์นกกระสา
woŋ nók krà-săa

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General

The following is based on analysis of dictionaries and other sources. Comments and corrections welcome. Malaysian names are now being updated. For consistency, Vietnamese bird names (except for ducks and chickens) are preceded by the word Chim meaning 'bird'. Ornithological lists mostly omit this as understood. Hover over Green Lettering Green lettering at this site hides a tool tip with glosses, further explanations, etc. Hover cursor to reveal. to see additional information.

The storks are generally known in Vietnamese as Chim cò, a word that covers not only the storks but also a range of long-legged, long-necked wading birds of similar appearance, including most of the herons (except the great herons) and the ibises.

Other terms referring specifically to the storks are Chim khàng and Chim khoang.

The storks are also known as Chim hạc, derived from Chinese meaning 'crane'. Indeed, Hạc also retains the meaning 'crane' in Vietnamese.

The adjutants are known as Chim già đẩy.

ORNITHOLOGICAL SPECIALISATIONS

The ciconiids are named as follows by ornithologists:

Vietnamese names Description Genera
Storks Mycteria, Anastomus, Ephippiorhynchus
Hạc Storks Ciconia
Già đẩy Adjutants Leptoptilos

The name Hạc (originally used for the cranes) is applied by ornithologists only to the genus Ciconia, which in turn gives its name to the family.

The name is used not only for the storks, but also for many of the Ardeidae (herons) and the Threskiornithidae (ibises and spoonbills).

USE OF IN OTHER FAMILIES
Name Family Subfamily Description Genera
Ardeidae Botaurinae Bitterns Ixobrychus, Dupetor
Ardeidae Ardeinae Night herons Gorsachius -- alternative name
Small Herons Butorides, Ardeola
Egrets Bubulcus, Egretta, Ardea alba
Cò quăm Threskiornithidae Threskiornithinae Ibises Threskiornis, Pseudibis, Plegadis
Cò thìa Threskiornithidae Plataleinae Spoonbills Platalea

Chữ Nôm

The characters used for ciconiids in the now obsolete Chữ Nôm characters include:

Name Chữ Nôm
Images from the Vietnamese Nôm Preservation Foundation dictionary. (Errors are the sole responsibility of the author of this site)
chu nom for co, chu nom for co, chu nom for co, chu nom for co, chu nom for co, chu nom for co
Hạc chu nom for hac (Chinese character for 'crane')

Species names

› ABOUT THIS TABLE‹
SCIENTIFIC & WESTERN
VIETNAMESE
EAST ASIAN
S. E. ASIAN
Leptoptilos
Latin
English/French
Vietnamese
Other V
Chinese
Japanese
Thai
Malaysian
Indonesian
Leptoptilos dubius
link to photo
Greater adjutant
Greater adjutant stork

Marabout argala
Chim Già đẩy lớn
'large gia day bird'
Giang
'giang'
Hạc già đẩy
'gia day stork'
大秃鹳
(大禿鸛)
dà tū-guàn
'large bald stork'
オオハゲコウ
(大禿鸛)
ō hage kō
'large bald stork'
นกตะกราม
nók tà-kraam
'glutton bird'
Burung Botak Besar
'large bald-bird' (24)
Burung Botak Babi Besar
'large pig bald-bird' (25)
Burung Bangau Besar
'large stork (bird)'
Leptoptilos javanicus
link to photolink to photo
Lesser adjutant
Lesser adjutant stork

Marabout chevelu
Chim Già đẩy Java
'Javanese gia day bird'
  秃鹳
(禿鸛)
tū-guàn
'bald stork'
コハゲコウ
(小禿鸛)
ko hage-kō
'small bald stork'
นกตะกรุม
nók tà-krum
'glutton bird'
Burung Botak
'bald-bird' (old, 26, alt in 28)
Burung Upih Botak
'bald (stork) bird' (28)
Burung Babi
'pig bird' (old)
Burung Botak Babi
'pig bald-bird' (old, 25)
Burung Botak Kecil
'small bald-bird' (24)
Burung Bangau
'stork (bird)' (29)
Burung Bangau Tongtong
'handbell stork (bird)'
Burung Bluwok Tongtong
'handbell stork (bird)' (30)
Mycteria
Latin
English/French
Vietnamese
Other V
Chinese
Japanese
Thai
Malaysian
Indonesian
Mycteria cinerea
link to photolink to photo
Milky stork

Tantale blanc
Chim Cò lạo xám
'grey lao stork (bird)' (='stork/heron/ibis')
  白鹮鹳
()
bái huán-guàn
'white ibis-stork' (4)
灰鹮鹳
()
hūi huán-guàn
'grey ibis-stork' (5)
シロトキコウ
(白朱鷺鸛)
shiro toki kō
'white ibis-stork'
นกกระสาปากเหลือง
nók krà-săa pàak-lĕuaŋ
'yellow-billed largewader (bird)'
Burung Upih
'stork (bird)' (old) (name shared with Mycteria leucocephala)
Burung Botak Upih
'stork bald-bird' (24, 25)
Burung Upih Bakau
'mangrove stork (bird)' (26, 28)

Burung Bluwok
'stork (bird)' (old)
Burung Blao
'stork (bird)' (29)
Burung Wilwo
'stork (bird)'
Burung Bangau Bluwok
'stork stork (bird)' (30)
Burung Walang Kada
'kada grasshopper bird' (alt in 29)
Mycteria leucocephala
Mycteria leucocephalus
link to photo
Painted stork

Tantale indien
Chim Cò nhạn
'swallow stork (bird)' (='stork/heron/ibis')
or
Cò ốc
'snail stork (bird)' (='stork/heron/ibis')
  白头鹮鹳
(白頭)
bái-tóu huán-guàn
'white-headed ibis-stork'
インドトキコウ
(インド朱鷺鸛)
indo toki kō
'Indian ibis-stork'
นกกาบบัว
nók kàap-bua
'lotus-bract bird'
Burung Upih
'stork (bird)' (old) (name shared with Mycteria cinerea)
Burung Upih Sawah
'wet-field stork (bird)' (26, 28)
Burung Botak Padi
'paddy bald-bird' (24, 25)
 
Anastomus
Latin
English/French
Vietnamese
Other V
Chinese
Japanese
Thai
Malaysian
Indonesian
Anastomus oscitans
link to photolink to photo
Asian openbill
Asian open-bill stork

Bec-ouvert indien
Chim Cò lạo Ấn Độ
'Indian lao stork (bird)' (='stork/heron/ibis')
Giang sen
'lotus? giang'
钳嘴鹳
(鉗嘴鸛)
qián-zuǐ guàn
'pincer-billed ibis-stork'
スキハシコウ
(隙嘴鸛)
suki-hashi kō
'open-bill stork'
นกปากห่าง
nók pàak-hàaŋ
'gap-billed bird'
Burung Upih Paruh Sepit
'pincer-billed stork (bird)' (28)
Burung Botak Siput
'snail bald-bird' (25)
Burung Botak Asia
'Asian bald-bird' (24)
 
Ciconia
Latin
English/French
Vietnamese
Other V
Chinese
Japanese
Thai
Malaysian
Indonesian
Ciconia nigra
link to photolink to photo
Black stork

Cigogne noire
Chim Hạc đen
'black crane (bird)'
  黑鹳
(黑鸛)
hēi-guàn
'black stork'
Taiwan:
(黑鹳)
黑鸛
hēi-guàn
'black stork'
ナベコウ
(鍋鸛)
nabe-kō
'pot stork'
นกกระสาดำ
nók krà-săa dam
'black largewader (bird)'
Burung Botak Hitam
'black bald-bird' (24)
 
Ciconia episcopus
link to photolink to photo
Woolly-necked stork

Cigogne épiscopale
Chim Hạc cổ trắng
'white-necked crane (bird)'
  白颈鹳
(白頸鸛)
bái-jǐng guàn
'white-necked stork'
エンビコウ
(燕尾鸛)
enbi-kō
'swallow-tail stork'
นกกระสาคอขาว
nók krà-săa kʰoaa-kʰăaw
'white-necked largewader (bird)'
Burung Upih Leher Putih
'white-necked stork (bird)' (26, 28)
Burung Botak Leher Putih
'white-necked bald-bird' (24, 24a) (shared with Ciconia stormi)
Burung Botak Padang
'field bald-bird' (25)
Burung Sandang Lawe
'yarn/wool-clothed bird' (conflicts with Mycteria cinerea) (old, 29)
Burung Bangau Sandang-lawe
'yarn/wool-clothed stork (bird)' (30)
Ephippiorhynchus
Latin
English/French
Vietnamese
Other V
Chinese
Japanese
Thai
Malaysian
Indonesian
Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus
Xenorhynchus asiaticus
link to photolink to photo
Black-necked stork

Jabiru d'Asie
Chim Cò Á châu
'Asian stork (bird)' (='stork/heron/ibis')
  黑颈鹳
(黑頸鸛)
hēi-jǐng guàn
'black-necked stork'
セイタカコウ
(背高鸛)
sei-taka kō
'tall stork'
นกกระสาคอดำ
nók krà-săa kʰoaa-dam
'black-necked largewader (bird)'
Burung Botak Leher Hitam
'black-necked bald-bird' (24)
Burung Bangau Leher-hitam
'black-necked stork (bird)'

นกกระสา nók krà-săa 'largewader (bird)' is popularly used for storks (Ciconiidae), Ardea great-herons (except for egrets) (Ardeidae), cranes (Gruidae), and ibises (Threskiornithidae). Restricted in modern ornithological Thai to the Ciconiidae and Ardeidae species.

The pink-shaded, overlapping feathers are said to resemble a lotus flower.

Upih (written variously as upih, upeh, upiah, upih-upih, upih-upihan, upik) is an old name for Mycteria storks. Upih has been extended as a general 'stork' name for ornithological Malaysian in (26, 28).

Bluwok is one representation of an old dialect name for Mycteria cinerea which is now variable in pronunciation and spelling. Bluwok, blao, and wilwo are historically all the same name. Bluwok has been extended as a general 'stork' name for ornithological Indonesian in some sources.

Bangau 'stork' is also popularly used for cranes (Gruidae), the extralimital flamingos (Phoenicopteridae), and (especially in Malaysian) for greatherons and egrets (Ardeidae). In the oldest Indonesian records bangau is identified as referring particularly to Leptoptilos javanicus.

Sandang lawe (written variously as sandang lawe, sandanglawe, sindanglawe, etc.) is from Javanese lawé 'yarn' and sandhang 'clothing'. It refers to the shaggy feathers of the white neck of Ciconia episcopus, but the name has been extended to other species.

(24a) modified the word order from incorrect botak putih leher in (24). The shared name is from a species split.

Burung Botak 'bald-bird' is an old name for Leptoptilos adjutants. In Indonesian sulah 'bald' is sometimes substituted in botak names. Botak has been extended as a general 'stork' name for ornithological Malaysian in (24, 25).

Bangau (also written bango from the Javanese and Sundanese pronunciations) in the oldest Indonesian records referred particularly to Leptoptilos javanicus. Bangau has been extended as a general 'stork' name for ornithological Indonesian in (30)

Tongtong (written variously as tongtong, tontong, etc.) 'handbell' refers to the crop which swings as it walks. This descriptor is from Javanese (bango) thonthong.

ตะกรุมตะกราม tà-krum tà-kraam is a rhyming-couplet adjective meaning 'greedy; gluttonous; avaricious; voracious; insatiable; etc.'. The couplet is broken up and the components are used separately for the two species of adjutants.

Burung ruak-ruak (written variously as ruak-ruak, ruk-ruk, rok-rok, etc.) is also one of the names for white-breasted waterhen, Amaurornis phoenicurus (Rallidae). The name is akin to roko-roko 'glossy ibis', Plegadis falcinellus (Threskiornithidae).

Merabu is borrowed from a Western colonial language (compare Portuguese 'marabu', Dutch 'maraboe', English 'marabou'). In modern English usage 'marabou' is restricted to the African species, Leptoptilos crumeniferus. However, as still in the other Western languages, it formerly referred to any of the Leptoptilos adjutants.

(In (24) originally given as Botak hitam leher. (24a) modified the word order to the correct Botak leher hitam but inadvertently reassigned the name to Ciconia stormi.

Burung Babi 'pig-bird' is an old name for Leptoptilos adjutants. The name refers to the habits which these birds share with pigs and render them religiously unclean.

The meaning of walang kada is unclear. It is used in (29) as an alternate name for Mycteria cinerea. The name earlier appeared as "walang kadda" in Raffles 1822, where it refers to the pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus. Both are large, pale-coloured birds.

Mostly from Robinson (& Chasen) 1927-1939 v1-4; additions from Madoc 1947 (et.seq.), and Glenister 1951 (both mostly names copied from Robinson)

世界鸟类分类与分布名录 主编:郑光美 科学出版社 北京 2002年
A Checklist on the Classification and Distribution of the Birds of the World Chief editor: Zheng Guangmei, Science Press, Beijing 2002

世界鸟类名称(拉丁文、汉文、英文对照)第二版 郑作新等 科学出版社 北京 2002年
Birds of the World (Latin, Chinese and English Names) 2nd ed. by Cheng Tso-Hsin et al, Science Press, Beijing 2002

Chim Việt Nam Nguyễn Cử, Lê Trọng Trải, Karen Phillipps; Nhà Xuất Bản Lao Động - Xã Hội, 2000

Senarai Nama-nama Burung Semenanjung Malaysia dan Asia Tenggara by Ismail, Abdul Rahman, Perhilitan (Jabatam Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara, Semenanjung Malaysia), Kuala Lumpur 1981
List of the Names of Birds of Peninsular Malaysia and Southeast Asia by Ismail, Abdul Rahman, Department of Wildlife and National Parks, Peninsular Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 1981

Previously online version of: Senarai Nama-nama Burung Semenanjung Malaysia dan Asia Tenggara by Ismail, Abdul Rahman, Perhilitan (Jabatam Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara, Semenanjung Malaysia), Kuala Lumpur 1981
List of the Names of Birds of Peninsular Malaysia and Southeast Asia by Ismail, Abdul Rahman, Department of Wildlife and National Parks, Peninsular Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 1981

The Birds of the Thai-Malay Peninsula: Vol. 1 - Non-passerines by Wells, David R., Academic Press, London 1999

A Field Guide to the Birds of West Malaysia and Singapore by Jeyarajasingam, Allen and Alan Pearson, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1999

A Field Guide to the Birds of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore (second edition) by Jeyarajasingham, Allen, Illustrations by Alan Pearson, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2012

A Field Guide to the Birds of Java and Bali (second edition) by MacKinnon, John, Gadjah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta 1990

Burung Nusantara checklist of Birds of Indonesia