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Ardeidae


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General

Information is from dictionaries and other sources. Comments and corrections welcome. All Malaysian and Indonesian names in the process of conversion into modernised spelling only. Hover over Green Lettering Green lettering at this site hides a tool tip with glosses, further explanations, etc. Hover cursor to reveal. to see additional information.

Large wading birds were once familiar sights in the rice fields and multiple names for these birds can be found in the popular languages. The practice of limiting names to single species is an artificial one and many names were shared by similar-looking species, even those belonging to different genera or families.

Development of General Large-Wader Names

Southeast Asian languages commonly have a general name meaning 'large-wader', typically spanning several different families. In Malay there is evidence for three such names: ruak-ruak, ruwai-ruwai, and bangau, all having a core meaning covering three groups: 'great heron', 'white heron', and 'adjutant stork'. In practical terms the meaning would be context-sensitive, or could optionally be specified with a modifier, such as putih 'white' to indicate 'white heron'.

The connection of the 'white herons' to the 'large-waders' was through Ardea alba, although the white herons themselves were typically not differentiated and the unmodified name could be applied to all. 'White herons' here includes not only the white egrets, but also smaller herons showing large patches of white (such as some night herons and pond herons). Conversely, the dark-phase reef egret is excluded.

Ruak-ruak and ruwai-ruwai are dialect variants of the same name and are no longer productive. Ruwai-ruwai has had little impact on modern naming, but ruak-ruak (written variously as ruak-ruak, ruwak-ruwak, uwak-uwak, wak-wak, ruah-ruah, ruk-ruk, rok-rok, ruku-ruku, roko-roko) survives in species names in several different families. In addition to the Great Heron and Great Egret in the Ardeidae, ruak-ruak in Malaysian is also found in a name for the Water Hen, Amaurornis phoenicurus (Rallidae), and in names for an adjutant stork Leptoptilos javanicus (Ciconiidae). In Indonesian the name is also applied to the Glossy Ibis, Plegadis falcinellus (Threskiornithidae).

Bangau (written variously as bangau, bangu, bango) was another typical large-wader name, although different parts of the core meaning came to be emphasised in different dialect areas. In the area of Western Malaya that has had the greatest influence on ornithological Malaysian, bangau became 'white heron'. In ornithological Malaysian bangau was redefined as 'egret' in (24) and is now the standard Malaysian translation for English 'egret'. In Indonesian the 'adjutant stork' meaning prevailed. (Javanese and Sundanese bango 'stork' are related names.)

Bangau is also used in the sense of 'egret' in other Malaysian bird names, for example murai bangau 'egret-thrush' for Paradise Flycatcher Terpsiphone paradisi.

In part because of proliferation in dictionaries of two centuries of examples, bangau is again today a productive, popular, general name for large waders in both Malaysian and Indonesian. In addition to great herons and egrets in the Ardeidae, bangau may popularly refer to cranes (Gruidae), the extralimital flamingos (Phoenicopteridae), and storks (Ciconiidae).

Development of Small-heron Names

In Malay the cryptically-coloured, darker small herons share several general names. The core of this group is the bitterns and the striated heron, but other small herons could also be included. Originally, gelam 'agate' (referring to the mottled red-brown plumage) and keladi 'caladium, taro' (referring to the habitat) occurred in the names of any of these small species, but both descriptors were later restricted to one single species in ornithological usage in (24).

Pucung 'small heron' was originally an old general name for bitterns and the striated heron, and remains so in some dialects. However, following the example of some early 20th century ornithologists who assigned the name pucung to all Ardeidae species, the original meaning has been expanded in Malaysian. Pucung was inserted into all Ardeidae names (except those of egrets) in (24), a practice continued by most subsequent authorities. Under this Malaysian ornithological specialisation pucung was redefined as equivalent to the English word 'heron', leading to the etymologically awkward result that even great herons are now described as pucung or 'small herons'.

Development of Great Heron names

The naming of the genus Ardea is split in line with the division in the large-wader complex, with the white species classed as a 'white heron' and the darker species as 'great herons'.

In addition to the general large-wader names, there were several other old Malay names which referred collectively to the great herons. These included se- agent derivatives of verbs which described the ways the long-legged great herons moved or stood: se-riap, se-randau, se-ranggung . Serangoon, a district in Singapore is named for the large flock of Ardea sumatrana which formerly lived there. A Kedahan great heron descriptor name lembu 'cattle' was an early borrowing from the North.

In ornithological Malaysian, (24) treated the great herons (excepting Ardea alba) as kinds of pucung 'smallheron' and redefined seriap, serandau, and lembu as descriptors for particular species. Indonesian finessed this complexity by borrowing cangak 'greatheron' from Javanese for all but Ardea alba.

Onomatopoeic Names

Night herons are famous for their distinctive loud calls and most Southeast Asian languages name all night herons after them. The same basic call is rendered in Malay as kuak, kuak-kuak, kuar(an), koak, kowak, etc. A corresponding name in early Javanese is guwo. In modern ornithological Malaysian, this call is conventionally written kuak; in Indonesian it is kowak.

Several loud heron calls are traditionally said to resemble the sounds made by cattle or buffalo. Lembu 'cattle' in the name for Ardea sumatrana refers to the similarity in sound rather than a physical association with cattle. Kuak, the verb 'to make cattle noises', is conventionally written the same way as the onomatopoetic name for Nycticorax night herons.

Also onomatopoetic are the large-wader names ruak-ruak and ruwai-ruwai, as well as most of the Indonesian small heron names.

Ornithological naming

The modern modifications introduced in (24) have been widely adopted as popular Malaysian usage, as well as by most of the ornithological establishment, although they have not supplanted other meanings.

Form of Name 19th C. Meaning Early 20th C. Meanings Modern Meanings Modern Ornithological Malaysian
pucung small heron small heron; ardeid small heron;
heron (24)
Botaurus, Ixobrychus, Dupetor, Gorsachius, Nycticorax, Butorides, Ardeola; Ardea (part) (24)
bangau large-wader white heron egret (24);
large-wader
Bubulcus, Egretta, Ardea (part) (24)

(In the most recent ornithological specialisation, pucung danau ('lake smallheron') was introduced in (28) as a translation of English 'pond heron' for Ardeola names, but it is too early to say if it will gain wider acceptance.)

Species names

› ABOUT THIS TABLE‹
SCIENTIFIC & WESTERN
MALAY
OTHER S. E. ASIAN
EAST ASIAN
Botaurus
Latin
English
Malaysian
Other M
Indonesian
Thai
Vietnamese
Chinese
Japanese
Botaurus stellaris
link to photolink to photo
Eurasian bittern
Great bittern
Bittern
Common bittern
Burung Pucung Paya
'marsh smallheron (bird)' (28)
Burung Pucung Danau
'lake smallheron (bird)' (24, 25, 26)
    นกยางแดงใหญ่
nók yaaŋ daeeŋ yày
'large red heron (bird)'
Chim Vạc rạ
'stubble vạc bird' (onomat.) (12, 13)
大麻
(大麻鳽)
dà má-yán
'large flax bittern'
Taiwan:
(大麻鹭)
大麻鷺
dà má-lù
'large flax-heron'
サンカノゴイ
(三家五位)
sanka no goi
'mountain-house bittern'
Ixobrychus
Latin
English
Malaysian
Other M
Indonesian
Thai
Vietnamese
Chinese
Japanese
Ixobrychus sinensis
link to photo
Yellow bittern
Chinese little bittern
Burung Pucung Kuning
'yellow smallheron (bird)' (old, 26, 28)
Burung Pucung Merah
'red smallheron (bird)' (24, 25)
Burung Pucung Gelam
'agate smallheron (bird)' (old) (shared with Ixobrychus eurhythmus; compare I. cinnamomeus)
Burung Pucung Keladi
'caladium smallheron (bird)' (old) (same as Ixobrychus eurhythmus, Butorides striata)
Burung Bambangan
'bang-bang bird' (onomat.) (old)
Burung Bambangan Kuning
'yellow bang-bang bird' (onomat.) (29, 30)
นกยางไฟหัวดำ
nók yaaŋ-fay hŭa-dam
'black-headed fire-heron (bird)'
Chim Cò lửa lùn
'dwarf fire stork (bird)' (12, 33)
黄斑苇
(黃斑葦鳽)
huáng-bān wěi-yán
'yellow-striped reed bittern' (2, 4)
黄苇
(黃葦鳽)
huáng wěi-yán
'yellow reed bittern' (1, 3, 5)
Taiwan:
(黄小鹭)
黃小鷺
huáng xiǎo-lù
'yellow small heron'
ヨシゴイ
(葦五位)
yoshi goi
'reed bittern'
Ixobrychus eurhythmus
link to photo
Shrenck's bittern
Schrenck's little bittern
Burung Pucung Gelam
'agate smallheron (bird)' (old, 24, 25, 26, 28) (shared with Ixobrychus sinensis; compare Ixobrychus cinnamomeus)
Burung Pucung Keladi
'caladium smallheron (bird)' (old) (same as Ixobrychus sinensis, Butorides striata; see also I. cinnamomeus)
Burung Bambangan Coklat
'brown bang-bang bird' (onomat.) (29, 30)
นกยางไฟหัวเทา
nók yaaŋ-fay hŭa-tʰaw
'grey-headed fire-heron (bird)'
Chim Cò nâu
'brown stork (bird)' (12, 33)
紫背苇
(紫背葦鳽)
zǐ-bèi wěi-yán
'purple back reed bittern'
Taiwan:
(秋小鹭)
秋小鷺
qiū xiǎo-lù
'autumn small heron'
オオヨシゴイ
(大葦五位)
ō yoshi goi
'large reed bittern'
Ixobrychus cinnamomeus
link to photolink to photo
Cinnamon bittern
Chestnut bittern
Burung Pucung Bendang
'wet-ricefield smallheron (bird)' (old, 24, 25, 26, 28)
Burung Pucung Gelam
'agate smallheron (bird)' (old) (compare Ixobrychus sinensis; and I. eurhythmus)
Burung Pucung Keladi
'caladium smallheron (bird)' (old) (compare Ixobrychus sinensis, I. eurhythmus, and Butorides striata)
Burung Kedondongan
'dong-dong bird' (onomat.)
Burung Bambangan Merah
'red bang-bang bird'
Burung Kekondangan
'kondang bird' (onomat.) (29)
Burung Kokokan
'kok-kok bird' (onomat.) (29)
นกยางไฟธรรมดา
nók yaaŋ-fay tʰam-ma-daa
'common fire-heron (bird)'
Chim Cò lửa
'fire stork (bird)' (12, 33)
栗苇
(栗葦鳽)
lì wěi-yán
'chestnut reed bittern'
Taiwan:
(栗小鹭)
栗小鷺
lì xiǎo-lù
'chestnut small heron'
リュウキュウヨシゴイ
(琉球葦五位)
ryūkyū yoshi goi
'Ryukyu reed bittern'
Ixobrychus flavicollis
Dupetor flavicollis
link to photo
Black bittern
Yellow-necked bittern
Burung Pucung Hitam
'black smallheron (bird)' (old, 24, 25, 26, 28)
Burung Tomtoman
'tom-tom bird' (onomat.) (old)
Burung Tototan
'tot-tot bird' (onomat.) (old)
Burung Bambangan Hitam
'black bang-bang bird'
Burung Kokokan Sungai
'river kok-kok bird' (onomat.) (29)
นกยางดำ
nók yaaŋ dam
'black heron (bird)'
Chim Cò hương
'perfume stork (bird)' (12)
黑苇
(黑葦鳽)
hēi wěi-yán
'black reed bittern' (1, 2, 4, 5)
or

(黑鳽)
hēi yán
'black bittern' (3. alt in 1)
Taiwan:
(黄颈黑鹭)
黃頸黑鷺
huáng-jǐng hēi-lù
'yellow-necked black heron'
タカサゴクロサギ
(高砂黒鷺)
takasago kuro-sagi
'Taiwan black heron'
Gorsachius
Latin
English
Malaysian
Other M
Indonesian
Thai
Vietnamese
Chinese
Japanese
Gorsachius melanolophus
Nycticorax melanolophus
link to photolink to photo
Malaysian night heron
Malayan night-heron
Malay night heron
Tiger bittern
Burung Pucung Harimau
'tiger smallheron (bird)' (26, 28)
Burung Pucung Rimau
'tiger smallheron (bird)' (24, 25)
Burung Perlong 'perlong (bird)' (old) Burung Kowak Melayu
'Malayan kowak bird' (onomat.) (29, 30)
นกยางลายเสือ
nók yaaŋ laay-sĕua
'tiger-striped heron (bird)'
Chim Cò tôm
'shrimp stork (bird)' (12, 33)
or
Chim Vạc rừng
'forest vạc bird' (onomat.) (12, 13, 33)
黑冠
(黑冠鳽)
hēi-guān yán
'black-crested bittern'
or
黑冠夜
(黑冠夜鳽)
hēi-guān yè-yán
'black-crested night-bittern' (alt in 1, 5)
Taiwan:
(黑冠麻鹭)
黑冠麻鷺
hēi-guān má-lù
'black-crested flax-heron'
ズグロミゾゴイ
(頭黒溝五位)
zu-guro mizo-goi
'black-headed ditch-bittern'
Nycticorax
Latin
English
Malaysian
Other M
Indonesian
Thai
Vietnamese
Chinese
Japanese
Nycticorax nycticorax
link to photolink to photolink to photo
Black-crowned night heron
Black-crowned night-heron
Night heron
Burung Kuak(-kuak)
'kuak(-kuak) bird' (onomat.) (old)
Burung Pucung Kuak
'kuak smallheron (bird)' (onomat.) (24, 25, 26, 28)
Burung Kuar(an)
'kuar bird' (onomat.) (shared with Amaurornis phoenicurus)
Burung Kuntul Malam
'night egret (bird)' (old)
Burung Kowak
'kowak bird' (onomat) (old, 29)
Burung Kowak-malam
'night-kowak bird' (onomat.) (old)
Burung Kowak-malam Abu
'ashy night-kowak bird' (onomat.) (30)
นกแขวก
nók kʰwàeek
'kʰwàeek bird' (onomat.)
Chim Vạc
'vạc bird' (onomat.) (12, 13, 33)
夜鹭
(夜鷺)
yè lù
'night heron'
Taiwan:
(夜鹭)
夜鷺
yè lù
'night heron'
ゴイサギ
(五位鷺)
goi sagi
'bittern heron'
Butorides
Latin
English
Malaysian
Other M
Indonesian
Thai
Vietnamese
Chinese
Japanese
Butorides striata
Butorides striatus
Ardeola striata
link to photolink to photo
Striated heron
Little heron
Green-backed heron
Little green heron
Burung Pucung
'smallheron (bird)' (old)
Burung Pucung Keladi
'caladium smallheron (bird)' (old, 24, 25, 26, 28) (same as Ixobrychus eurhythmus, I. sinensis; compare I. cinnamomeus)
Burung Blekek
'kek (bird)' (onomat.)
Burung Upih-upihan
'diminutive stork (bird)' (old)
Burung Pucung Bakau
'mangrove smallheron (bird)' (old) (same as Ardeola grayii)
Burung Kokokan Laut
'sea kok-kok bird' (onomat.) (29, 30)
นกยางเขียว
nók yaaŋ kʰĭaw
'green heron (bird)'
Chim Cò xanh
'blue/green stork (bird)' (12, 13, 33)
绿鹭
(綠鷺)
lǜ lù
'green heron' (1, 2, 3, 4)
小绿鹭
(小綠鷺)
xiǎo lǜ lù
'little green heron' (5)
Taiwan:
(绿蓑鹭)
綠蓑鷺
lǜ suō lù
'green raincoat heron'
ササゴイ
(笹五位)
sasa goi
'bamboo bittern'
Ardeola
Latin
English
Malaysian
Other M
Indonesian
Thai
Vietnamese
Chinese
Japanese
Ardeola grayii
link to photo
Indian pond heron
Indian pond-heron
Paddy bird
Burung Pucung India
'Indian smallheron (bird)' (25)
Burung Pucung Danau India
'Indian lake-smallheron (bird)' (28)
Burung Pucung Bakau
'mangrove smallheron (bird)' (24) (same as Butorides striata)
    นกยางกรอกพันธุ์อินเดีย
nók yaaŋ-kròaak pʰan in-dia
'Indian species kròaak heron (bird)' (onomat.)
  印度池鹭
(印度池鷺)
yìndù chí-lù
'Indian pond heron'
インドアカガシラサギ
(インド赤頭鷺)
indo aka-gashira sagi
'Indian red-headed heron'
Ardeola bacchus
link to photo
Chinese pond heron
Chinese pond-heron
Burung Pucung Cina
'Chinese smallheron (bird)' (24, 25, 26)
Burung Pucung Danau Cina
'Chinese lake-smallheron (bird)' (28)
Burung Pucung Padi
'paddy smallheron (bird) (old)
Burung Baju Tampung
'patchwork-jacketed bird' (old)
Burung Blekok Cina
'Chinese kok bird' (onomat.) (30)
นกยางกรอกพันธุ์จีน
nók yaaŋ-kròaak pʰan ciin
'Chinese species kròaak heron (bird)' (onomat.)
Chim Cò bợ
'bợ stork (bird)' (12, 13, 33)
池鹭
(池鷺)
chí-lù
'pond heron'
Taiwan:
(池鹭)
池鷺
chí-lù
'pond heron'
アカガシラサギ
(赤頭鷺)
aka-gashira sagi
'red-headed heron'
Ardeola speciosa
link to photo
Javan pond heron
Javan pond-heron
Javanese pond heron
Burung Pucung Jawa
'Javanese smallheron (bird)' (24, 25, 26)
Burung Pucung Danau Jawa
'Javanese lake-smallheron (bird)' (28)
  Burung Blekok
'kok bird' (onomat.) (old)
Burung Blekok Sawah
'wet-field kok bird' (onomat.) (29, 30)
นกยางกรอกพันธุ์ชวา
nók yaaŋ-kròaak pʰan cʰa-waa
'Javanese species kròaak heron (bird)' (onomat.)
Chim Cò bợ Java
'Javanese bợ stork (bird)' (12)
爪哇池鹭
(爪哇池鷺)
zhǎowā chí-lù
'Javanese pond heron'
Taiwan:
(爪哇池鹭)
爪哇池鷺
zhǎowā chí-lù
'Javanese pond heron'
ジャワアカガシラサギ
(ジャワ赤頭鷺)
jawa aka-gashira sagi
'Javanese red-headed heron'
Bubulcus
Latin
English
Malaysian
Other M
Indonesian
Thai
Vietnamese
Chinese
Japanese
Bubulcus ibis
Egretta ibis
link to photo
Cattle egret
Buff-backed heron
Burung Bangau Kerbau
'buffalo large-wader (bird)' (26, 28)
Burung Bangau Kendi
'watercarafe large-wader (bird)' (name exchanged with Egretta intermedia) (24, 25)
Burung Kuntul-cilik
'small egret (bird)' (old) (Indonesian)
Burung Kuntul Kerbau
'buffalo egret (bird)' (29, 30)
Bubulcus coromandus:
นกยางควาย
nók yaaŋ kʰwaay
'water-buffalo heron (bird)'
Chim Cò ruồi
'fly stork (bird)' (12, 13, 33)
牛背鹭
(牛背鷺)
niú-bèi lù
'ox-back heron'
Taiwan:
(黄头鹭)
黃頭鷺
huáng-tóu lù
'yellow-headed heron'
アマサギ
(亜麻鷺)
ama-sagi
'flax-heron'
Ardea
Latin
English
Malaysian
Other M
Indonesian
Thai
Vietnamese
Chinese
Japanese
Ardea cinerea
link to photolink to photo
Grey heron Burung Seriap
'greatheron (bird)' (old) (same as Ardea sumatrana, Ardea purpurea)
Burung Pucung Seriap
'greatheron smallheron (bird)' (24, 25, 26, 28)
Burung Serandau
'wader (bird)' (old) (same as Ardea purpurea)
Burung Bangau Air
'water large-wader (bird)' (old)
Burung Cangak Abu
'ashy greatheron (bird)' (old, 29, 30)
นกกระสานวล
nók krà-săa nuan
'pale largewader (bird)'
Chim Diệc xám
'grey heron (bird)' (12, 13, 33)
苍鹭
(蒼鷺)
cāng-lù
'darkblue heron'
Taiwan:
(苍鹭)
蒼鷺
cāng-lù
'darkblue heron'
アオサギ
(青鷺)
ao-sagi
'blue/green heron'
Ardea sumatrana
link to photo
Great-billed heron
Dusky-grey heron
Burung Lembu
'cattle (bird)' (old)
Burung Pucung Lembu
'cattle smallheron (bird)' (24, 25, 26, 28)
Burung Bangau Besar
'large large-wader (bird)' (old) (conflicts with Ardea alba)
Burung Ruak-ruak
'ruak-ruak bird' (old)
Burung (Se-)Ranggung
'straddler (bird)' (old)
Burung Seriap
'greatheron (bird)' (old) (same as Ardea cinerea, A. purpurea)
Burung Pisau Raut
'sharp knife bird' (old)
Burung Cangak Laut
'sea greatheron (bird)' (29, 30)
นกกระสาใหญ่
nók krà-săa yày
'large largewader (bird)')
Chim Diệc Xumatra
'Sumatra heron (bird)' (12)
大嘴鹭
(大嘴鷺)
dà-zuǐ lù
'large-billed heron' (4)
乌灰鹭
(烏灰鷺)
wū-huī lù
'black-grey heron' (5)
スマトラサギ
(スマトラ鷺)
sumatora-sagi
'Sumatra heron'
Ardea purpurea
link to photolink to photolink to photo
Purple heron Burung Serandau
'wader (bird)' (old) (same as Ardea cinerea)
Burung Pucung Serandau
'wader smallheron (bird)' (24, 25, 26, 28)
Burung Seriap
'greatheron (bird)' (old) (same as Ardea cinerea, A. sumatrana)

Burung Bangau Paya
'marsh large-wader (bird)'
Burung Cangak Hulu
'upstream greatheron (bird)' (old) (Indonesian)
Burung Cangak Merah
'red greatheron (bird)' (29, 30)
นกกระสาแดง
nók krà-săa daeeŋ
'red largewader (bird)')
Chim Diệc lửa
'fire heron (bird)' (12, 13, 33)
草鹭
(草鷺)
cǎo-lù
'grass heron'
Taiwan:
(紫鹭)
紫鷺
zǐ-lù
'purple heron'
ムラサキサギ
(紫鷺)
murasaki-sagi
'purple heron'
Ardea alba
Egretta alba
Casmerodius albus
link to photolink to photo
Great egret
Great white heron
Burung Bangau Besar
'large large-wader (bird)' (old, 24, 25, 26, 28)
Burung Bangau Putih
'white large-wader (bird)' (old)
Burung Ruak-ruak Putih
'white ruak-ruak bird' (old)
Burung Kuntul
'egret (bird)' (old)
Burung Kuntul Besar
'large egret (bird)' (30)
Burung Kuntul Putih Besar
'large white egret (bird)' (29)
Ardea modesta:
นกยางโทนใหญ่
nók yaaŋ tʰoon yày
'large solitary heron (bird)'
Egretta alba (12), Casmerodius albus (13):
Chim Cò ngàng lớn
'large ngàng stork (bird)' (12, 13)
大白鹭
(大白鷺)
dà bái-lù
'large white heron'
Taiwan:
(大白鹭)
大白鷺
dà bái-lù
'large white heron'
ダイサギ
(大鷺)
dai-sagi
'large heron'
Ardea intermedia
Egretta intermedia
Mesophoyx intermedia
link to photolink to photo
Intermediate egret
Plumed egret
Lesser egret
Burung Bangau Kendi
'watercarafe large-wader (bird)' (26, 28)
Burung Bangau Kerbau
'buffalo large-wader (bird)' (Name swapped with Bubulcus ibis) (24, 25)
Burung Bangau Kambing
'goat large-wader (bird)' (old)
Burung Kuntul Sedang
'medium egret (bird)' (Indonesian)
Burung Kuntul Perak
'silver egret (bird)' (29, 30)
นกยางโทนน้อย
nók yaaŋ tʰoon nóaay
'little solitary heron (bird)'
Egretta intermedia (12, 33), Mesophoyx intermedia (13):
Chim Cò ngàng nhỏ
'small ngàng stork (bird)' (12, 13, 33)
中白鹭
(中白鷺)
zhōng bái-lù
'medium white heron'
Taiwan:
(中白鹭)
中白鷺
zhōng bái-lù
'medium white heron'
チュウサギ
(中鷺)
chū-sagi
'medium heron'
Egretta
Latin
English
Malaysian
Other M
Indonesian
Thai
Vietnamese
Chinese
Japanese
Egretta garzetta
link to photolink to photo
Little egret Burung Bangau Kecil
'small large-wader (bird)' (24, 25, 26, 28)
Burung Bangau Ular
'snake large-wader (bird)' (old)
Burung Kuntul Kecil
'small egret (bird)' (30)
Burung Kuntul Perak Kecil
'small silver egret (bird)' (29)
นกยางเปีย
nók yaaŋ pia
'tufted (back of head) heron (bird)'
Chim Cò trắng
'white stork (bird)' (12, 33)
›Name‹
白鹭
(白鷺)
bái-lù
'white heron'

Taiwan:
(小白鹭)
小白鷺
xiǎo bái-lù
'little white heron'
コサギ
(小鷺)
ko-sagi
'small heron'
Egretta sacra
link to photolink to photo
Pacific Reef Egret
Pacific reef-egret
Eastern reef-egret
Reef heron
Eastern reef heron
Reef egret
Burung Pucung Batu
'rock smallheron (bird)' (old)
Burung Bangau Batu
'rock large-wader (bird)' (24, 25, 26, 28)
Burung Kuntul Hitam
'black egret (bird)' (Indonesian)
Burung Kuntul Karang
'coral egret (bird)' (29, 30)
นกยางทะเล
nók yaaŋ tʰa-lee
'sea heron (bird)'
Chim Cò đen
'black stork (bird)' (12, 33) (conflicts with Ixobrychus flavicollus)
岩鹭
(岩鷺)
yán-lù
'rock heron'
Taiwan:
(岩鹭)
岩鷺
yán-lù
'rock heron'
クロサギ
(黒鷺)
kuro-sagi
'black heron'
Egretta eulophotes
link to photo
Chinese egret
Swinhoe's egret
Burung Bangau Cina
'Chinese large-wader (bird)' (24, 25, 26, 28)
  Burung Kuntul Cina
'Chinese egret (bird)' (30)
นกยางจีน
nók yaaŋ ciin
'Chinese heron (bird)'
Chim Cò trắng Trung Quốc
'Chinese white stork (bird)' (12, 13, 33)
黄嘴白鹭
(黄嘴白鷺)
huáng-zuǐ bái-lù
'yellow-billed white heron'
Taiwan:
(唐白鹭)
唐白鷺
táng bái-lù
'Chinese white heron'
カラシラサギ
(唐白鷺)
kara shira-sagi
'Chinese white heron'

is a general name for storks (excluding adjutants), ibises, and certain types of medium-sized ardeid. Its scope includes the egrets but excludes the great herons and some night herons and bitterns. Attempts have been made in the ornithological naming to bring Vietnamese names into conformity with the scientific taxonomy.

นกกระส nók krà-săa 'largewader (bird)' is popularly used for Ardea great-herons (except for egrets) in the Ardeidae, and also for the storks (Ciconiidae), cranes (Gruidae), and ibises (Threskiornithidae). However, in modern ornithological Thai the name has been restricted only to the Ardeidae and Ciconiidae species.

The name นกยางโทน nók yaaŋ tʰoon 'solitary heron' for the two Ardea egrets is paralleled in Northern Thai นกขวากตน nók kʰwàak ton 'solitary greatheron' reported for Ardea cinerea. Currently, ornithological 'solitary' heron names are known only for these three species.

Bambangan 'bang-bang bird' is an old Indonesian bittern name first recorded for Ixobrychus sinensis, now also applied to other bittern species in (29, 30).

Kokokan 'kok-kok bird' is an Indonesian name for small herons and bitterns. It is a reduplicated version of the similar sound kok used in blekok 'pond heron'. Unmodified, kokokan is used in (29) for Ixobrychus cinnamomeus, suggesting the other kokokan names in (29) are extensions.

Nightherons are named after their distinctive loud calls. The same basic call is rendered here variously as kuak, kuak-kuak, kuar, kuaran, kowak, etc. A corresponding name in early Javanese is guwo.

Pucung is originally an old general name for any of several small herons and bitterns. Unmodified pucung has been especially identified with Butorides striata since the early 19th century. Principally in Malaysian, the name has been relatively recently extended to refer to any birds called 'heron' in English.

Blekek (also written belekek) 'kek bird' is the Javanese version of Malay berkek or berkik 'snipe'. Indonesian blekek has been recorded for various kinds of birds hunted as snipe, including true snipe and dowitchers (Scolopacidae), painted snipe (Rostratulidae), and as here, small herons (Ardeidae)

Word order corrected from "Tampung Baju"; the original error later miscopied as "Tampung Bajau"

Blekok (also written belekok) 'kok bird' is the old name for Ardeola speciosa on Java, where only that one species of pond heron normally occurs, but the name has always been used for vagrants of other species as well. Blekok is extended as a general pond heron name for ornithological Indonesian in (30).

Bangau 'large-wader' is a widely used general name for large wading birds. In Malaysian bangau has principally come to refer to any birds called 'egret' in English, but earlier records include any mostly-white herons as well as great herons and storks. In addition, bangau is popularly used for cranes (Gruidae), the extralimital flamingos (Phoenicopteridae), and (especially in Indonesian) for adjutant storks (Ciconiidae). Bangau has also been extended as a general 'stork' name for ornithological Indonesian in (30).

Kendi 'watercarafe' refers to (originally South Asian) water containers whose shapes or modes of use suggest certain round-bodied, long-billed birds. Aside from its use as a descriptor for certain egrets in Ardeidae, kendi also serves as the base for Malaysian names of curlews and whimbrels (Scolopacidae). The derived form sekendi is used for ibises and spoonbills (Threskiornithidae).

Pucung is originally an old general name for any of several small herons and bitterns. Following an early ornithological extension, Malaysian pucung now may refer to any bird called 'heron' in English. Pucung was inserted into all ornithological Malaysian Ardeidae names (except those for egrets) in (24), a practice continued by most subsequent authorities.

Several loud heron calls are traditionally said to resemble the sounds made by cattle or buffalo. Lembu 'cattle' in the name for Ardea sumatrana refers to the perceived similarity in sound rather than a physical association with cattle. Kuak, the verb 'to make cattle noises', is conventionally written the same way as kuak, one of the onomatopoetic names for Nycticorax nightherons.

Ruak-ruak (written variously as ruak-ruak, ruwak-ruwak, uwak-uwak, wak-wak, ruah-ruah, ruwai-ruwai, ruk-ruk, rok-rok, ruku-ruku, roko-roko) is the representative of a large group of names mutually descended from a very old general name for large waders. The name is no longer productive and has evolved into species names in several families. In addition to the large heron and egret in the Ardeidae, ruak-ruak is used in names for Leptoptilos javanicus, an adjutant stork (Ciconiidae); Amaurornis phoenicurus, Waterhen (Rallidae), and Plegadis falcinellus, Glossy Ibis (Threskiornithidae).

Pisau raut 'sharp knife' refers to any of several particular styles of knives with curved or straight blades. The long bills of several different kinds of wading bird are said to resemble those blades. In addition to large herons, curlews and whimbrels (Scolopacidae) also have names based on pisau raut (or an abbreviated form, raut).

Kuntul (variously written kuntul, kontul, kontol, kundur, kutur, koto, kuntuk) is an old Indonesian, Javanese and East-Coast Malayan general name for egret. Unmodified kuntul may be popularly used in Indonesian for any egret, but refers especially to the largest species, Ardea alba. Optionally besar 'large' may be added to reinforce that identification.

Upih-upihan, essentially "storklet" or "storkling", is a diminutive reduplication of upih, Mycteria cinerea, Milky Stork (Ciconiidae).

Mostly from Robinson (& Chasen) 1927-1939 v1-4; additions from Madoc 1947 (et.seq.), and Glenister 1951 (both mostly names copied from Robinson)

世界鸟类分类与分布名录 主编:郑光美 科学出版社 北京 2002年

中国鸟类种和亚种分类名录大全(修订版) 郑作新 著 科学出版社 北京 2000年
A Complete Checklist of Species and Subspecies of the Chinese Birds (Revised Edition) by Cheng Tso-Hsin, Science Press, Beijing 2000

中国鸟类分类与分布名录 主编:郑光美 科学出版社 北京 2005年
A Checklist on the Classification and Distribution of the Birds of China Chief editor: Zheng Guangmei, Science Press, Beijing 2005

中国鸟类野外手册(中文版)约翰・马敬能、卡伦・菲利普斯,合作者:荷芬奇,翻译:卢和芬 湖南教育出版社 长沙 2000年
A Field Guide to the Birds of China (Chinese translation) by John MacKinnon, Karen Phillipps, in collaboration with He Fen-qi, translated by Lu Hefen, Hunan Jiaoyu Chubanshe (Hunan Educational Press) Changsha 2000

世界鸟类分类与分布名录 主编:郑光美 科学出版社 北京 2002年
A Checklist on the Classification and Distribution of the Birds of the World Chief editor: Zheng Guangmei, Science Press, Beijing 2002

世界鸟类名称(拉丁文、汉文、英文对照)第二版 郑作新等 科学出版社 北京 2002年
Birds of the World (Latin, Chinese and English Names) 2nd ed. by Cheng Tso-Hsin et al, Science Press, Beijing 2002

Danh Lục Chim Việt Nam (In lần thứ hai) (Checklist of the Birds of Vietnam) Võ Quý, Nguyễn Cử, Nhà Xuất Bản Nông Nghiệp, Hà Nội 1999

Chim Việt Nam Nguyễn Cử, Lê Trọng Trải, Karen Phillipps; Nhà Xuất Bản Lao Động - Xã Hội, 2000

Senarai Nama-nama Burung Semenanjung Malaysia dan Asia Tenggara by Ismail, Abdul Rahman, Perhilitan (Jabatam Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara, Semenanjung Malaysia), Kuala Lumpur 1981
List of the Names of Birds of Peninsular Malaysia and Southeast Asia by Ismail, Abdul Rahman, Department of Wildlife and National Parks, Peninsular Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 1981

The Birds of the Thai-Malay Peninsula: Vol. 1 - Non-passerines by Wells, David R., Academic Press, London 1999

A Field Guide to the Birds of West Malaysia and Singapore by Jeyarajasingam, Allen and Alan Pearson, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1999

The Birds of the Thai-Malay Peninsula: Vol. 2 - Passerines by Wells, David R., Christopher Helm, A&C Black, London 2007

A Field Guide to the Birds of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore (second edition) by Jeyarajasingham, Allen, Illustrations by Alan Pearson, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2012

A Field Guide to the Birds of Java and Bali (second edition) by MacKinnon, John, Gadjah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta 1990

Burung Nusantara checklist of Birds of Indonesia

Danh Lục Các Loài Chim ở Việt Nam (Latinh, Việt, Pháp, Hán) Trần Văn Chánh 2008-2009