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Corvidae
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General

Information is from dictionaries and other sources. Comments and corrections welcome. Hover over Green Lettering Green lettering at this site hides a tool tip with glosses, further explanations, etc. Hover cursor to reveal. to see additional information.

Traditional Thai names of the Corvidae follow a different pattern from that in English. Under Thai naming, corvids are just as likely to be grouped with other families as they are with other corvids, and the magpie (Pica pica), as a marginal species in Thai avifauna, lacks the role in naming that it has in English. While ornithological usage makes some attempt to conform with English patterns, to a large extent the old naming system remains intact.

1. กา kaa: The old onomatopoetic name กา kaa 'crow' for Corvus macrorhynchos has been adapted and extended both to additional kinds of corvid, and also to other large, dark-coloured birds in different families. แก kaee for the smaller Corvus splendens is an old sound-symbolic derivation from กา kaa. Today, อีกา ii-kaa and อีแก ii-kaee (with the old wildlife prefix, อี- ii-) are the generally preferred variants of these two species names.

นกกาน้อย nók kaa-nóaay 'little-crow (bird)' is partially equivalent to English 'jay', being used for Platylophus crested jays and Platysmurus (which was formerly considered a jay but is actually a treepie).

A similar descriptive compound, นกกาน้ำ nók kaa-náam 'water-crow (bird)' is used for cormorants (Phalacrocoracidae).

กา kaa is also paired with distinctive calls to form names for other kinds of large dark birds:

นกกาแวน nók kaa-waeen 'waeen-crow' (bird)' is used for Crypsirina and Temnurus treepies (Corvidae);

นกกาเหว่า nók kaa-wàw 'wàw-crow (bird)' is used for Eudynamys koels (Cuculidae). Extralimitally, นกกาเหว่า nók kaa-wàw 'wàw-crow (bird)' is also used for Crotophaga anis (Cuculidae) and Corvus ravens (Corvidae).

2. Another treepie name, นกกะลิงเขียด nók kà-liŋ-kʰìat, is used for Dendrocitta and Temnurus treepies. It has an uncertain etymology but may be related in part to นกเเก้วกะลิง nók kâeew kà-liŋ 'kà-liŋ parrot (bird)' for Psittacula finschii (Psittaculidae).

3. นกขุนแผน nók kʰŭn-pʰăeen, which we have arbitrarily glossed as 'trogon', refers both to Urocissa blue magpies and to Harpactes trogons (Trogonidae). Here the Thai traditional classification unites these birds as a single kind of multicoloured bird for which no single English name is comparable. Thai ornithological usage typically reserves the unmodified name for the single native species of Urocissa, and distinguishes the different species of trogons with modifiers. Some authorities have suggested a new name for Urocissa reflecting its status as a type of 'magpie' (นกสาลิกาดง nók săa-lí-kaa 'talkingbird (bird)', see below), restricting นกขุนแผน nók kʰŭn-pʰăeen to the trogons.

4. Pica magpies are a new addition to the Thai native list that have only a marginal distribution. Proposed names are shared with other families

a) นกกางเขน nók kaaŋ-kʰĕen applied to Pica magpies is an extension of the general name for the ubiquitous Copsychus magpie-robins (Muscicapidae). Enicurus forktails (Muscicapidae) are similarly known as นกกางเขนน้ำ nók kaaŋ-kʰĕen-náam 'water-magpierobin (bird)'. All of these birds share bold black and white markings.

b) Magpies as 'talkingbird': Many very old Indic traditional stories feature differently named talking birds. It is often difficult to identify which species were originally meant, or indeed whether they were in reality capable of mimicking human speech. One such unidentifiable talkingbird name is usually written in Sanskrit as sārikā or śārikā, although additional variant spellings occur. Both versions were borrowed into Thai, transliterated according to the different original spellings as สาริกา and ศาริกา but pronounced identically as săa-rí-kaa. Another Thai variant, สาลิกา săa-lí-kaa, is  the preferred form in Lao. (The same name has been independently borrowed as Khmer [saareʔkaa] and Mon [sariˀka].)

In Thai this 'talkingbird' name has come to be identified equally with magpies and with Acridotheres Common Mynas (Sturnidae). Thai ornithological authorities have attempted to disambiguate these usages with limited effect, and popularly all three Thai talkingbird variants still have both meanings.

Most modern ornithological sources now use the นกสาลิกา nók săa-lí-kaa variant for Pica magpies, and hence generally as a translation for English 'magpie'. This has resulted in the creation of the modern ornithological general names นกสาลิกาเขียว nók săa-lí-kaa kʰĭaw (green 'magpie') for Cissa green magpies and นกสาลิกาดง (jungle 'magpie') for Urocissa blue magpies (as noted above).

For ornithological disambiguation, the Acridotheres Common Myna name now includes an additional myna general name, เอี้ยง îaŋ. Two variants, นกเอี้ยงสาริกา nók îaŋ săa-rí-kaa and นกเอี้ยงสาลิกา nók îaŋ săa-lí-kaa, both 'talkingbird myna (bird)', have been used.

Species names

› ABOUT THIS TABLE‹
SCIENTIFIC & WESTERN
THAI
OTHER S. E. ASIAN
EAST ASIAN
Platylophus
Latin
English
Thai
Other Th
Malaysian
Indonesian
Vietnamese
Chinese
Japanese
Platylophus galericulatus
link to photo
Crested jay
Crested Malay jay
นกกาน้อยหงอนยาว
nók kaa-nóaay ŋŏaan-yaaw
'long-crested little-crow (bird)'
  Burung Menjerit
'screamer-bird' (26, 27)
or
Burung Gagak Jerit
'screamer-crow (bird)' (onomat.) (26, 27)
Burung Tangkar Ongklet
'crestedjay stockman (bird)' (tangkar is from Javanese)
  冠鸦
(冠鴉)
guàn-yā
'crested crow' (4)
马来冠鸦
(馬來冠鴉)
mǎlái guàn-yā
'Malay crested crow' (5)
カンムリカケス
(冠懸巣 ~ kakesu)
kanmuri kake-su
'crested hang-nest'
Platysmurus
Latin
English
Thai
Other Th
Malaysian
Indonesian
Vietnamese
Chinese
Japanese
Platysmurus leucopterus
link to photo
Black magpie
Black-crested magpie
นกกาน้อยแถบปีกขาว
nók kaa-nóaay tʰâeep-pìik-kʰăaw
'white-wing-banded little-crow (bird)'
  Burung Kambing
'goat/sheep bird' (26, 27)
Burung Gagak Kambing
'goat/sheep crow (bird)' (onomat.) (24)
or
Burung Temenggang
'blackmagpie (bird)' (alt in 26)
Burung Tangkar Kambing
'goat/sheep stockman (bird)' (tangkar is from Javanese)
  白翅鹊
(白翅鵲)
bái-chì-què
'white-winged magpie' (4)
黑冠噪鹊
(黑冠噪鴉)
hēi-guàn zào-què
'black-crested noisy magpie' (5)
クロカケス
(黒懸巣 ~ kakesu)
kuro kake-su
'black hang-nest'
Temnurus
Latin
English
Thai
Other Th
Malaysian
Indonesian
Vietnamese
Chinese
Japanese
Temnurus temnurus
Crypsirina temnura
Ratchet-tailed treepie
Notch-tailed tree pie
นกกะลิงเขียดหางหนาม
nók kà-liŋ-kʰìat hăaŋ-năam
'thorn-tailed treepie (bird)' (cf Psittaculidae)
นกกาแวนหางหนาม
nók kaa-waeen hăaŋ-năam
'thorn-tailed waeen-crow (bird)' (onomat.) (21)
นกกาแวนหางเลื่อย
nók kaa-waeen hăaŋ-lêuay
'saw-tailed waeen-crow (bird)' (onomat.) (alt in 21)
    Chim khách đuôi cờ
'flag-tailed khach bird' (onomat.) (12, 34)
塔尾树鹊
(塔尾樹鵲)
tǎ-wěi shù-què
'tower-tailed tree magpie'
キリオオナガ
(切り尾尾長)
kiri-o o-naga
'cut-tail long-tail'
Crypsirina
Latin
English
Thai
Other Th
Malaysian
Indonesian
Vietnamese
Chinese
Japanese
Crypsirina temia
link to photo
Racquet-tailed treepie
Racket-tailed treepie
Black racket-tailed tree pie
นกกาแวน
nók kaa-waeen
'waeen crow (bird)' (onomat.)
กาแวน
kaa-waeen
'waeen (crow)' (onomat.)
กระแวน
krà-waeen
'waeen' (onomat.)
Burung Gagak Anting-anting
'pendulum crow (bird)'
(24, 26, 27)
Burung
Tangkar Cetrong
'treepie stockman bird' (tangkar is from Javanese)
Chim khách
'khach bird' (onomat.) (12, 34)
盘尾树鹊
(盤尾樹鵲)
pán-wěi shù-què
'plate-tailed tree magpie'
クロラケットオナガ
(黒ラケット尾長)
kuro raketto o-naga
'black racket long-tail'
Dendrocitta
Latin
English
Thai
Other Th
Malaysian
Indonesian
Vietnamese
Chinese
Japanese
Dendrocitta vagabunda
Crypsirina vagabunda
link to photo
Rufous treepie
Indian tree pie
นกกะลิงเขียด
nók kà-liŋ-kʰìat
'treepie (bird)' (cf Psittaculidae)
      Chim Choàng choạc hung
'reddish treepie (bird)' (12, 34)
棕腹树鹊
(棕腹樹鵲)
zōng-fù shù-què
'reddishbrown-bellied tree magpie'
チャイロオナガ
(茶色尾長)
cha-iro o-naga
'grey long-tail'
Dendrocitta formosae
Crypsirina formosae
link to photo
Grey treepie
Himalayan tree pie
นกกะลิงเขียดสีเทา
nók kà-liŋ-kʰìat sĭi-tʰaw
'grey treepie (bird)' (cf Psittaculidae)
      Chim Choàng choạc xám
'grey treepie (bird)' (12, 13, 34)
灰树鹊
(灰樹鵲)
huī shù-què
'grey tree magpie'
Taiwan:
(树鹊)
樹鵲
shù-què
'tree magpie'
タイワンオナガ
(台湾尾長)
taiwan o-naga
'Taiwan long-tail'
Urocissa
Latin
English
Thai
Other Th
Malaysian
Indonesian
Vietnamese
Chinese
Japanese
Urocissa erythrorhyncha
Cissa erythrorhyncha
link to photo
Red-billed blue magpie
Blue magpie
นกขุนแผน
nók kʰŭn-pʰăeen
'trogon (bird)'
นกสาลิกาดง
nók săa-lí-kaa doŋ
'jungle talkingbird (bird)'
    Chim Giẻ cùi
'bluemagpie (bird)' (12, 13, 34)
红嘴蓝鹊
(紅嘴藍鵲)
hóng-zuǐ lán-què
'red-billed blue-magpie'
サンジャク
(山鵲)
sanjaku
'mountain-magpie'
Cissa
Latin
English
Thai
Other Th
Malaysian
Indonesian
Vietnamese
Chinese
Japanese
Cissa chinensis
link to photo
Common green magpie
Green magpie
นกสาลิกาเขียว
nók săa-lí-kaa kʰĭaw
'green talkingbird (bird)'
  Burung Gagak Gunung
'mountain crow (bird)' (onomat.) (24, 26)
Burung Gagak Hijau
'green crow (bird)' (onomat.) (27)
Burung Ekek Layongan
layongan ? greenmagpie (bird)
Chim Giẻ cùi xanh
'blue/green bluemagpie (bird)' (12, 34)
蓝绿鹊
(藍綠鵲)
lán lǜ-què
'blue green magpie'
ヘキサン
(碧鵲)
hekisan
'green-magpie'
Cissa hypoleuca
link to photo
indochinese green magpie
Yellow-breasted magpie
Yellow-breasted green magpie
Eastern green magpie
นกสาลิกาเขียวหางสั้น
nók săa-lí-kaa kʰĭaw hăaŋ-sân
'short-tailed green talkingbird (bird)'
      Chim Giẻ cùi bụng vàng
'yellow-bellied bluemagpie (bird)' (12, 34)
黄胸绿鹊
(紅胸綠鵲)
huáng-xiōng lǜ-què
'yellow-breasted green magpie' (2, 4)
印支绿鹊
(印支綠鵲)
yìn-zhī lǜ-què
'indochinese green magpie' (3)
シナシヘキサン
(シナシ碧鵲)
shinashi hekisan
'China? green-magpie'
Garrulus
Latin
English
Thai
Other Th
Malaysian
Indonesian
Vietnamese
Chinese
Japanese
Garrulus glandarius
link to photolink to photo
Eurasian jay
Jay
นกปีกลายสก๊อต
nók pìik-laay-sa-kóaat
'Scot-striped (= plaid)-winged bird'
      Chim Quạ thông
'pine crow (bird)' (12, 13, 34)
松鸦
(松鴉)
sōng-yā
'pine crow'
Taiwan:
(松鸦)
松鴉
sōng-yā
'pine crow'
カケス
(懸巣 ~ character for kakesu)
kake-su
'hang-nest'
Pica
Latin
English
Thai
Other Th
Malaysian
Indonesian
Vietnamese
Chinese
Japanese
Pica pica
link to photolink to photo
Eurasian Magpie
Common Magpie
Black-billed magpie
Magpie
นกสาลิกาปากดำ
nók săa-lí-kaa pàak-dam
'black-billed talkingbird (bird)'
นกกางเขน
nók kaaŋ-kʰĕen
'magpierobin (bird)'
นกสาลิกาดำ
nók săa-lí-kaa dam 'black talkingbird (bird)'(alt in 21)
    Chim Ác là
' crow₁ (bird)' (12, 13, 34)
or
Chim Bồ các
'bồ các (bird)' (12, 13, 34)
喜鹊
(喜鵲)
xǐ-què
'magpie'
Taiwan:
(喜鹊)
喜鵲
xǐ-què
'magpie'
カササギ
()
kasasagi
'magpie'
Corvus
Latin
English
Thai
Other Th
Malaysian
Indonesian
Vietnamese
Chinese
Japanese
Corvus splendens
link to photo
House crow อีแก
ii-kaee
'crow' (onomat.)
  Burung Gagak Rumah
'house crow (bird)' (onomat.) (24, 26, 27)
Burung Gagak Rumah
'house crow (bird)' (onomat.)
  家鸦
(家鴉)
jiā-yā
'house crow'
イエガラス
(家烏 ~ 家鴉)
ie-garasu
'house crow'
Corvus macrorhynchos
link to photolink to photo
Large-billed crow
or
Jungle crow
Thick-billed crow
อีกา
ii-kaa
'crow' (onomat.)
กา
kaa
'crow' (onomat.) (21)
นกกา
nók kaa
'crow (bird)' (onomat.)
Burung Gagak Paruh Besar
'large-billed crow (bird)' (onomat.) (24, 26, 27)
Burung Gagak Kampung
'village crow (bird)' (onomat.)
Chim Quạ đen
'black crow (bird)' (12, 13, 34)
大嘴乌鸦
(大嘴烏鴉)
dà zuǐ wū-yā
'large-billed crow'
Taiwan:
(巨嘴鸦)
巨嘴鴉
jù-zuǐ yā
'giant-billed crow'
ハシブトガラス
(嘴太烏 ~ 嘴太鴉)
hashi-buto garasu
'thick-billed crow'

นกขุนแผน nók kʰŭn-pʰăeen properly refers to a traditional grouping which unites the blue magpies with the Harpactes trogons (Trogonidae). It does not actually mean simply 'trogon', but there is no comparable English translation for the name. Ornithological usage splits the familiar name between both groups. The unmodified name was redefined as 'bluemagpie' and the modified names are reserved for trogon names.

Sanskrit sārikā or śārikā 'talking bird' has been borrowed into Thai as สาริกา and ศาริกา, both săa-rí-kaa; and as สาลิกา săa-lí-kaa. Although the original Indic species identification is lost, Thai relates these names equally to magpies and to common mynas (Sturnidae).

中国鸟类分类与分布名录 主编:郑光美 科学出版社 北京 2005年
A Checklist on the Classification and Distribution of the Birds of China Chief editor: Zheng Guangmei, Science Press, Beijing 2005

中国鸟类野外手册(中文版)约翰・马敬能、卡伦・菲利普斯,合作者:荷芬奇,翻译:卢和芬 湖南教育出版社 长沙 2000年
A Field Guide to the Birds of China (Chinese translation) by John MacKinnon, Karen Phillipps, in collaboration with He Fen-qi, translated by Lu Hefen, Hunan Jiaoyu Chubanshe (Hunan Educational Press) Changsha 2000

世界鸟类分类与分布名录 主编:郑光美 科学出版社 北京 2002年
A Checklist on the Classification and Distribution of the Birds of the World Chief editor: Zheng Guangmei, Science Press, Beijing 2002

世界鸟类名称(拉丁文、汉文、英文对照)第二版 郑作新等 科学出版社 北京 2002年
Birds of the World (Latin, Chinese and English Names) 2nd ed. by Cheng Tso-Hsin et al, Science Press, Beijing 2002

Danh Lục Chim Việt Nam (In lần thứ hai) (Checklist of the Birds of Vietnam) Võ Quý, Nguyễn Cử, Nhà Xuất Bản Nông Nghiệp, Hà Nội 1999

Chim Việt Nam Nguyễn Cử, Lê Trọng Trải, Karen Phillipps; Nhà Xuất Bản Lao Động - Xã Hội, 2000

นกในเมืองไทย รศ. โอภาส ขอบเขตต (Birds in Thailand, by Assoc. Prof. Obhas Khobkhet), in five volumes, Sarakadee Press, Bangkok, 1998-2001

Senarai Nama-nama Burung Semenanjung Malaysia dan Asia Tenggara by Ismail, Abdul Rahman, Perhilitan (Jabatam Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara, Semenanjung Malaysia), Kuala Lumpur 1981
(List of the Names of Birds of Peninsular Malaysia and Southeast Asia by Ismail, Abdul Rahman, Department of Wildlife and National Parks, Peninsular Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 1981)

A Field Guide to the Birds of West Malaysia and Singapore by Jeyarajasingam, Allen and Alan Pearson, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1999

The Birds of the Thai-Malay Peninsula: Vol. 2 - Passerines by Wells, David R., Christopher Helm, A&C Black, London 2007

Danh Lục Các Loài Chim ở Việt Nam (Latinh, Việt, Pháp, Hán) Trần Văn Chánh 2008-2009